■ 來源 | 天涯時事,作者:天涯補刀本文觀點僅供參考,不代表本刊立場,如有侵權,請與我們及時聯繫!非常感謝!)

1991年12月25日,世界發生了一場巨大的地緣政治災難:蘇聯解體。

關於蘇聯解體的原因非常的多,包括政治、經濟、軍事、外交和民族矛盾等方方面面的原因,各種研究書籍汗牛充棟。但是,我認為根本原因只有兩點:

第一,經濟困難。

第二,失去民心。

蘇聯解體之前的美蘇爭霸,蘇聯因為和美國進行軍備競賽,過度發展重工業,關係國計民生的輕工業極其薄弱;蘇聯為了和美國爭奪世界的領導權,走上了蘇聯社會帝國主義的道路,侵略了阿富汗,陷入了戰爭的泥潭,加劇了經濟上的困境,民眾生活極其困難。

如果僅僅是經濟困難,那麼還未必能讓蘇聯解體,最關鍵是蘇共失去了民心——一批有威望的老革命家不斷去世、新領導人威望不足,再加上蘇聯體制僵化,貪污腐敗嚴重,最終讓蘇共失去了民心。

蘇聯解體以「戈爾巴喬夫宣布辭職」為標誌,隨後葉利欽被選為獨立的俄羅斯聯邦的首任總統,開始推動資本主義的市場經濟和民主制。

169. Don’t let yesterday use up too much of today. 別留念昨天了,把握好今天吧。(Will Rogers) 170. If you are not brave enough, no one will back you up. 你不勇敢,沒人替你堅強。171. If you don’t build your dream, someone will hire you to build theirs. 如果你沒有夢想,那麼你只能為別人的夢想打工。172. Beauty is all around, if you just open your heart to see. 只要你給自己機會,你會發現你的世界可以很美麗。173. The difference in winning and losing is most often…not quitting. 贏與輸的差別通常是–不放棄。(華特·迪士尼) 174. I am ordinary yet unique. 我很平凡,但我獨一無二。175. I like people who make me laugh in spite of myself. 我喜歡那些讓我笑起來的人,就算是我不想笑的時候。176. Image a new story for your life and start living it. 為你的生命想一個全新劇本,並去傾情出演吧!177. I’d rather be a happy fool than a sad sage. 做個悲傷的智者,不如做個開心的傻子。178. The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams. 未來屬於那些相信夢想之美的人。(埃莉諾·羅斯福) 179. Even if you get no applause, you should accept a curtain call gracefully and appreciate your own efforts. 即使沒有人為你鼓掌,也要優雅的謝幕,感謝自己的認真付出。180. Don’t let dream just be your dream. 別讓夢想只停留在夢裡。181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 沒有笑聲的一天是浪費了的一天。(卓別林) 182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,見的世面多了,你會發現原來在意的那些結根本算不了什麼。183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功關鍵都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》 184. You can be happy no matter what. 開心一點吧,管它會怎樣。185. A good plan today is better than a perfect plan tomorrow. 今天的好計劃勝過明天的完美計劃。186. Nothing is impossible, the word itself says ‘I’m possible’! 一切皆有可能!「不可能」的意思是:「不,可能。」(奧黛麗·赫本) 187. Life isn’t fair, but no matter your circumstances, you have to give it your all. 生活是不公平的,不管你的境遇如何,你只能全力以赴。188. No matter how hard it is, just keep going because you only fail when you give up. 無論多麼艱難,都要繼續前進,因為只有你放棄的那一刻,你才輸了。     When Paul Jobs was mustered out of the Coast Guard after World War II, he made a wager with his crewmates. They had arrived in San Francisco, where their ship was decommissioned, and Paul bet that he would find himself a wife within two weeks. He was a taut, tattooed engine mechanic, six feet tall, with a passing resemblance to James Dean. But it wasn』t his looks that got him a date with Clara Hagopian, a sweet-humored daughter of Armenian immigrants. It was the fact that he and his friends had a car, unlike the group she had originally planned to go out with that evening. Ten days later, in March 1946, Paul got engaged to Clara and won his wager. It would turn out to be a happy marriage, one that lasted until death parted them more than forty years later. Paul Reinhold Jobs had been raised on a dairy farm in Germantown, Wisconsin. Even though his father was an alcoholic and sometimes abusive, Paul ended up with a gentle and calm disposition under his leathery exterior. After dropping out of high school, he wandered through the Midwest picking up work as a mechanic until, at age nineteen, he joined the Coast Guard, even though he didn』t know how to swim. He was deployed on the USS General M. C. Meigs and spent much of the war ferrying troops to Italy for General Patton. His talent as a machinist and fireman earned him commendations, but he occasionally found himself in minor trouble and never rose above the rank of seaman. Clara was born in New Jersey, where her parents had landed after fleeing the Turks in Armenia, and they moved to the Mission District of San Francisco when she was a child. She had a secret that she rarely mentioned to anyone: She had been married before, but her husband had been killed in the war. So when she met Paul Jobs on that first date, she was primed to start a new life. Clara, however, loved San Francisco, and in 1952 she convinced her husband to move back there. They got an apartment in the Sunset District facing the Pacific, just south of Golden Gate Park, and he took a job working for a finance company as a 「repo man,」 picking the locks of cars whose owners hadn』t paid their loans and repossessing them. He also bought, repaired, and sold some of the cars, making a decent enough living in the process. There was, however, something missing in their lives. They wanted children, but Clara had suffered an ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilized egg was implanted in a fallopian tube rather than the uterus, and she had been unable to have any. So by 1955, after nine years of marriage, they were looking to adopt a child. Like Paul Jobs, Joanne Schieble was from a rural Wisconsin family of German heritage. Her father, Arthur Schieble, had immigrated to the outskirts of Green Bay, where he and his wife owned a mink farm and dabbled successfully in various other businesses, including real estate and photoengraving. He was very strict, especially regarding his daughter』s relationships, and he had strongly disapproved of her first love, an artist who was not a Catholic. Thus it was no surprise that he threatened to cut Joanne off completely when, as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, she fell in love with Abdulfattah 「John」 Jandali, a Muslim teaching assistant from Syria. Jandali was the youngest of nine children in a prominent Syrian family. His father owned oil refineries and multiple other businesses, with large holdings in Damascus and Homs, and at one point pretty much controlled the price of wheat in the region. His mother, he later said, was a 「traditional Muslim woman」 who was a 「conservative, obedient housewife.」 Like the Schieble family, the Jandalis put a premium on education. Abdulfattah was sent to a Jesuit boarding school, even though he was Muslim, and he got an undergraduate degree at the American University in Beirut before entering the University of Wisconsin to pursue a doctoral degree in political science. In the summer of 1954, Joanne went with Abdulfattah to Syria. They spent two months in Homs, where she learned from his family to cook Syrian dishes. When they returned to Wisconsin she discovered that she was pregnant. They were both twenty-three, but they decided not to get married. Her father was dying at the time, and he had threatened to disown her if she wed Abdulfattah. Nor was abortion an easy option in a small Catholic community. So in early 1955, Joanne traveled to San Francisco, where she was taken into the care of a kindly doctor who sheltered unwed mothers, delivered their babies, and quietly arranged closed adoptions. Joanne had one requirement: Her child must be adopted by college graduates. So the doctor arranged for the baby to be placed with a lawyer and his wife. But when a boy was born—on February 24, 1955—the designated couple decided that they wanted a girl and backed out. Thus it was that the boy became the son not of a lawyer but of a high school dropout with a passion for mechanics and his salt-of-the-earth wife who was working as a bookkeeper. Paul and Clara named their new baby Steven Paul Jobs. When Joanne found out that her baby had been placed with a couple who had not even graduated from high school, she refused to sign the adoption papers. The standoff lasted weeks, even after the baby had settled into the Jobs household. Eventually Joanne relented, with the stipulation that the couple promise—indeed sign a pledge—to fund a savings account to pay for the boy』s college education. There was another reason that Joanne was balky about signing the adoption papers. Her father was about to die, and she planned to marry Jandali soon after. She held out hope, she would later tell family members, sometimes tearing up at the memory, that once they were married, she could get their 別讓夢想只停留在夢裡。181. A day without laughter is a day wasted. 沒有笑聲的一天是浪費了的一天。(卓別林) 182. Travel and see the world; afterwards, you will be able to put your concerns in perspective. 去旅行吧,見的世面多了,你會發現原來在意的那些結根本算不了什麼。183. The key to acquiring proficiency in any task is repetition. 任何事情成功關鍵都是熟能生巧。《生活大爆炸》 184. You can be happy no matter what. 開心一點吧,管它會怎樣。baby boy back. Arthur Schieble died in August 1955, after the adoption was finalized. Just after Christmas that year, Joanne and Abdulfattah were married in St. Philip the Apostle Catholic Church in Green Bay. He got his PhD in international politics the next year, and then they had another child, a girl named Mona. After she and Jandali divorced in 1962, Joanne embarked on a dreamy and peripatetic life that her daughter, who grew up to become the acclaimed novelist Mona Simpson, would capture in her book Anywhere but Here. Because Steve』s adoption had been closed, it would be twenty years before they would all find each other. Steve Jobs knew from an early age that he was adopted. 「My parents were very open with me about that,」 he recalled. He had a vivid memory of sitting on the lawn of his house, when he was six or seven years old, telling the girl who lived across the street. 「So does that mean your real parents didn』t want you?」 the girl asked. 「Lightning bolts went off in my head,」 according to Jobs. 「I remember running into the house, crying. And my parents said, 『No, you have to understand.』 They were very serious and looked me straight in the eye. They said, 『We specifically picked you out.』 Both of my parents said that and repeated it slowly for me. And they put an emphasis on every word in that sentence.」 Abandoned. Chosen. Special. Those concepts became part of who Jobs was and how he regarded himself. His closest friends think that the knowledge that he was given up at birth left some scars. 「I think his desire for complete control of whatever he makes derives directly from his personality and the fact that he was abandoned at birth,」 said one longtime colleague, Del Yocam. 「He wants to control his environment, and he sees the product as an extension of himself.」 Greg Calhoun, who became close to Jobs right after college, saw another effect. 「Steve talked to me a lot about being abandoned and the pain that caused,」 he said. 「It made him independent. He followed the beat of a different drummer, and that came from being in a different world than he was born into.」 Later in life, when he was the same age his biological father had been when he abandoned him, Jobs would father and abandon a child of his own. (He eventually took responsibility for her.) Chrisann Brennan, the mother of that child, said that being put up for adoption left Jobs 「full of broken glass,」 and it helps to explain some of his behavior. 「He who is abandoned is an abandoner,」 she said. Andy Hertzfeld, who worked with Jobs at Apple in the early 1980s, is among the few who remained close to both Brennan and Jobs. 「The key question about Steve is why he can』t control himself at times from being so reflexively cruel and harmful to some people,」 he said. 「That goes back to being abandoned at birth. The real underlying problem was the theme of abandonment in Steve』s life.」 Jobs dismissed this. 「There』s some notion that because I was abandoned, I worked very hard so I could do well and make my parents wish they had me back, or some such nonsense, but that』s ridiculous,」 he insisted. 「Knowing I was adopted may have made me feel more independent, but I have never felt abandoned. I』ve always felt special. My parents made me feel special.」 He would later bristle whenever anyone referred to Paul and Clara Jobs as his 「adoptive」 parents or implied that they were not his 「real」 parents. 「They were my parents 1,000%,」 he said. When speaking about his biological parents, on the other hand, he was curt: 「They were my sperm and egg bank. That』s not harsh, it』s just the way it was, a sperm bank thing, nothing more.」 Silicon Valley The childhood that Paul and Clara Jobs created for their new son was, in many ways, a stereotype of the late 1950s. When Steve was two they adopted a girl they named Patty, and three years later they moved to a tract house in the suburbs. The finance company where Paul worked as a repo man, CIT, had transferred him down to its Palo Alto office, but he could not afford to live there, so they landed in a subdivision in Mountain View, a less expensive town just to the south. There Paul tried to pass along his love of mechanics and cars. 「Steve, this is your workbench now,」 he said as he marked off a section of the table in their garage. Jobs remembered being impressed by his father』s focus on craftsmanship. 「I thought my dad』s sense of design was pretty good,」 he said, 「because he knew how to build anything. If we needed a cabinet, he would build it. When he built our fence, he gave me a hammer so I could work with him.」 Fifty years later the fence still surrounds the back and side yards of the house in Mountain View. As Jobs showed it off to me, he caressed the stockade panels and recalled a lesson that his father implanted deeply in him. It was important, his father said, to craft the backs of cabinets and fences properly, even though they were hidden. 「He loved doing things right. He even cared about the look of the parts you couldn』t see.」 His father continued to refurbish and resell used cars, and he festooned the garage with pictures of his favorites. He would point out the detailing of the design to his son: the lines, the vents, the chrome, the trim of the seats. After work each day, he would change into his dungarees and retreat to the garage, often with Steve tagging along. 「I figured I could get him nailed down with a little mechanical ability, but he really wasn』t interested in getting his hands dirty,」 Paul later recalled. 「He never really cared too much about m189. It requires hard work to give off an appearance of effortlessness. 你必須十分努力,才能看起來毫不費力。190. Life is like riding a bicycle.To keep your balance,you must keep moving. 人生就像騎單車,只有不斷前進,才能保持平衡。(愛因斯坦) 191. Be thankful for what you have.You’ll end up having more. 擁有一顆感恩的心,最終你會得到更多。192. Beauty is how you feel inside, and it reflects in your eyes. 美是一種內心的感覺,並反映在你的眼睛裏。(索菲亞·羅蘭) 193. Friendship doubles your joys, and divides your sorrows. 朋友的作用,就是讓你快樂加倍,痛苦減半。194. When you long for something sincerely, the whole world will help you. 當你真心渴望某樣東西時,整個宇宙都會來幫忙。echanical things.」 「I wasn』t that into fixing cars,」 Jobs admitted. 「But I was eager to hang out with my dad.」 Even as he was growing more aware that he had been adopted, he was becoming more attached to his father. One day when he was about eight, he discovered a photograph of his father from his time in the Coast Guard. 「He』s in the engine room, and he』s got his shirt off and looks like James Dean. It was one of those Oh wow moments for a kid. Wow, oooh, my parents were actually once very young and really good-looking.」 Through cars, his father gave Steve his first exposure to electronics. 「My dad did not have a deep understanding of electronics, but he』d encountered it a lot in automobiles and other things he would fix. He showed me the rudiments of electronics, and I got very interested in that.」 Even more interesting were the trips to scavenge for parts. 「Every weekend, there』d be a junkyard trip. We』d be looking for a generator, a carburetor, all sorts of components.」 He remembered watching his father negotiate at the counter. 「He was a good bargainer, because he knew better than the guys at the counter what the parts should cost.」 This helped fulfill the pledge his parents made when he was adopted. 「My college fund came from my dad paying $50 for a Ford Falcon or some other beat-up car that didn』t run, working on it for a few weeks, and selling it for $250—and not telling the IRS.」 The Jobses』 house and the others in their neighborhood were built by the real estate developer Joseph Eichler, whose company spawned more than eleven thousand homes in various California subdivisions between 1950 and 1974. Inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright』s vision of simple modern homes for the American 「everyman,」 Eichler built inexpensive houses that featured floor-to-ceiling glass walls, open floor plans, exposed post-and-beam construction, concrete slab floors, and lots of sliding glass doors. 「Eichler did a great thing,」 Jobs said on one of our walks around the neighborhood. 「His houses were smart and cheap and good. They brought clean design and simple taste to lower-income people. They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors. You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids.」 Jobs said that his appreciation for Eichler homes instilled in him a passion for making nicely designed products for the mass market. 「I love it when you can bring really great design and simple capability to something that doesn』t cost much,」 he said as he pointed out the clean elegance of the houses. 「It was the original vision for Apple. That』s what we tried to do with the first Mac. That』s what we did with the iPod.」 Across the street from the Jobs family lived a man who had become successful as a real estate agent. 「He wasn』t that bright,」 Jobs recalled, 「but he seemed to be making a fortune. So my dad thought, 『I can do that.』 He worked so hard, I remember. He took these night classes, passed the license test, and got into real estate. Then the bottom fell out of the market.」 As a result, the family found itself financially strapped for a year or so while Steve was in elementary school. His mother took a job as a bookkeeper for Varian Associates, a company that made scientific instruments, and they took out a second mortgage. One day his fourth-grade teacher asked him, 「What is it you don』t understand about the universe?」 Jobs replied, 「I don』t understand why all of a sudden my dad is so broke.」 He was proud that his father never adopted a servile attitude or slick style that may have made him a better salesman. 「You had to suck up to people to sell real estate, and he wasn』t good at that and it wasn』t in his nature. I admired him for that.」 Paul Jobs went back to being a mechanic. His father was calm and gentle, traits that his son later praised more than emulated. He was also resolute. Jobs described one exampl What made the neighborhood different from the thousands of other spindly-tree subdivisions across America was that even the ne』er-do-wells tended to be engineers. 「When we moved here, there were apricot and plum orchards on all of these corners,」 Jobs recalled. 「But it was beginning to boom because of military investment.」 He soaked up the history of the valley and developed a yearning to play his own role. Edwin Land of Polaroid later told him about being asked by Eisenhower to help build the U-2 spy plane cameras to see how real the Soviet threat was. The film was dropped in canisters and returned to the NASA Ames Research Center in Sunnyvale, not far from where Jobs lived. 「The first computer terminal I ever saw was when my dad brought me to the Ames Center,」 he said. 「I fell totally in love with it.」 Other defense contractors sprouted nearby during the 1950s. The Lockheed Missiles and Space Division, which built submarine-launched ballistic missiles, was founded in 1956 next to the NASA Center; by the time Jobs moved to the area four years later, it employed twenty thousand people. A few hundred yards away, Westinghouse built facilities that produced tubes and electrical transformers for the missile systems. 「You had all these military companies on the cutting edge,」 he recalled. 「It was mysterious and high-tech and made living here very exciting.」 In the wake of the defense industries there arose a booming economy based on technology. Its roots stretched back to 1938, when David Packard and his new wife moved into a house in Palo Alto that had a shed where his friend Bill Hewlett was soon ensconced. The house had a garage—an appendage that would prove both useful and iconic in the valley—in which they tinkered around until they had their first product, an audio oscillator. By the 1950s, Hewlett-Packard was a fast-growing company making technical instruments. Fortunately there was a place nearby for entrepreneurs who had outgrown their garages. In a move that would help transform the area into the cradle of the tech revolution, Stanford University』s dean of engineering, Frederick Terman, created a seven-hundred-acre industrial park on university land for private companies that could commercialize the ideas of his students. Its first tenant was Varian Associates, where Clara Jobs worked. 「Terman came up with this great idea that did more than anything to cause the tech industry to grow up here,」 Jobs said. By the time Jobs was ten, HP had nine thousand employees and was the blue-chip company where every engineer seeking financial stability wanted to work. The most important technology for the region』s growth was, of course, the semiconductor. William Shockley, who had been one of the inventors of the transistor at Bell Labs in New Jersey, moved out to Mountain View and, in 1956, started a company to build transistors using silicon rather than the more expensive germanium that was then commonly used. But Shockley became increasingly erratic and abandoned his silicon transistor project, which led eight of his engineers—most notably Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore—to break away to form Fairchild Semiconductor. That company grew to twelve thousand employees, but it fragmented in 1968, when Noyce lost a power struggle to become CEO. He took Gordon Moore and founded a company that they called Integrated Electronics Corporation, which they soon smartly abbreviated to Intel. Their third employee was Andrew Grove, who later would grow the company by shifting its focus from memory chips to microprocessors. Within a few years there would be more than fifty companies in the area making semiconductors. The exponential growth of this industry was correlated with the phenomenon famously discovered by Moore, who in 1965 drew a graph of the speed of integrated circuits, based on the number of transistors that could be placed on a chip, and showed that it doubled about every two years, a trajectory that could be expected to continue. This was reaffirmed in 1971, when Intel was able to etch a complete central processing unit onto one chip, the Intel 4004, tronic amplifier. 「So I raced home, and I told my dad that he was wrong.」 「No, it needs an amplifier,」 his father assured him. When Steve protested otherwise, his father said he was crazy. 「It can』t work without an amplifier. There』s some trick.」 「I kept saying no to my dad, telling him he had to see it, and finally he actually walked down with me and saw it. And he said, 『Well I』ll be a bat out of hell.』」 Jobs recalled the incident vividly because it was his first realization that his father did not know everything. Then a more disconcerting discovery began to dawn on him: He was smarter than his parents. He had always admired his father』s competence and savvy. 「He was not an educated man, but I had always thought he was pretty damn smart. He didn』t read much, but he could do a lot. Almost everything mechanical, he could figure it out.」 Yet the carbon microphone incident, Jobs said, began a jarring process of realizing that he was in fact more clever and quick than his parents. 「It was a very big moment that』s burned into my mind. When I realized that I was smarter than my parents, I felt tremendous shame for having thought that. I will never forget that moment.」 This discovery, he later told friends, along with the fact that he was adopted, made him feel apart—detached and separate—from both his family and the world. Another layer of awareness occurred soon after. Not only did he discover that he was brighter than his parents, but he discovered that they knew this. Paul and Clara Jobs were loving parents, and they were willing to adapt their lives to suit a son who was very smart—and also willful. They would go to great lengths to accommodate him. And soon Steve discovered this fact as well. 「Both my parents got me. They felt a lot of responsibility once they sensed that I was special. They found ways to keep feeding me stuff and putting me in better schools. They were willing to defer to my needs.」 So he grew up not only with a sense of having once been abandoned, but also with a sense that he was special. In his own mind, that was more important in the formation of his personality. School Even before Jobs started elementary school, his mother had taught him how to read. This, however, led to some problems once he got to school. 「I was kind of bored for the first few years

下面我們就從這段開始說起。

蘇聯解體以後,葉利欽開始了經濟改革,採取了資本主義的市場經濟和民主制。

俄羅斯在資本主義化的過程中,首先要做的就是國企私有化。

蘇聯解體之前,採取的是計劃經濟,幾乎全部是國企。

國企相當於是人民的企業,屬於所有人。

葉利欽想要走資本主義道路,推進市場經濟,首先要做的就是將國企私有化,把國企的財富分給人民。

如何分?

大概是意思是這樣的:假設一個公司有100人,這個公司值100萬,那麼就發行100張面額為1萬的支票,每人發一張,這個支票你隨時可以賣掉。

下面這張圖就是在1992年的時候葉利欽的改革團隊把全國的資產分為1.48億份支票和憑單的「私有化支票」,每張面額為1萬盧布。

葉利欽這麼做大家高興不高興?

大家當然非常高興啊,因為等於每人都分到了一大筆錢啊。

但是,後面會發生什麼,傻子也都能想出來。

以前大家都在國企上班,本來就受夠了那種體制內的各種制約,現在國企被私有化了,大家都獲得了一大筆錢,肯定會有很多人不想幹了。

於是,很多人就把這個「支票」給賣出去了,一部分人拿着錢去搞市場經濟了,還有一部分人拿着錢,繼續在這個企業里工作。

這會出現什麼後果?

大家想想,如果現在國家給我們每人發1萬塊會出現什麼後果?

滿市場都是錢。

當市場上的錢大幅度增加,而商品卻沒有增加多少的時候,商品價格就會大幅度的上漲,也就等於盧布大幅度的開始貶值了。

這就出現一個現象:越早拋「私有化支票」就能越早換到盧布現金,然後拿着盧布就能換到更多的商品,越遲拋換到的商品就越少……

於是,大家瘋狂的開始拋售「私有化支票」,瘋狂的拋售盧布,盧布不停的貶值,最終成了廢紙。

而在這個過程中,一些聰明的商人看到了這其中的機會。

我們舉例來說明:我分到1萬盧布的私有化支票,我立刻換成盧布。假設這個時候盧布兌美元是1盧布=1美元,那麼我立刻兌換成1萬美元。由於兌換的人越來越多,等盧布大幅度貶值的時候,我再拿着美元兌換成巨額的盧布。假設這個時候,盧布幾乎等於廢紙了,1美元=1萬盧布,那麼我1萬美元就能換1萬萬盧布,然後我再拿着這1萬萬盧布兌換成1萬張私有化支票(每張面額為1萬盧布),就能獲得了企業的控制權。

就這樣,俄羅斯的國企被極少部分人獲得了控制權,這些人就被稱為「寡頭」。

1991年蘇聯解體,到了1996年左右的時候,俄羅斯的經濟經濟幾乎全部被資本家所控制,老百姓分到的那1萬盧布基本都貶值成了廢紙。

於是,老百姓非常的憤怒,又開始懷念社會主義了。

1996年俄羅斯再次開始大選,以久加諾夫為首的俄羅斯共產黨獲得了極高的支持率,葉利欽的地位岌岌可危。

葉利欽為了獲得政權,於是就和那些寡頭勾結了起來。

那時候,俄羅斯最有名的七巨頭分別為:聯合銀行總裁別列佐夫斯基、大橋銀行總裁古辛斯基、國際商業銀行總裁維諾格拉多夫、首都銀儲蓄行總裁斯摩棱斯基、阿爾法銀行總裁弗里德曼、梅納傑普銀行總裁霍多爾科夫斯基和俄羅斯信貸商業銀行總裁馬爾金。

下面的圖就是葉利欽為了尋求連任,在克里姆林宮會見「七巨頭」時的畫面。

葉利欽和這些寡頭達成利益交換以後,這些寡頭就利用自己控制的媒體鋪天蓋地的報道蘇聯時期的各種負面新聞,把社會主義的弊端無限的放大,甚至不斷的妖魔化列寧、斯大林等俄羅斯的偉人……

最終,葉利欽成功連任,而俄羅斯的政治也被這些寡頭所左右。

這就是很多人聽到過的「資本控制政治」。

政治是一件非常複雜的事情,資本家對於怎麼撈錢可能非常擅長,但是治理國家完全是另外一回事,所以資本控制政治一定是一個災難!

現在的美國也基本是這樣的,美國資本控制了美國的政治。

在2015年8月的電視辯論中,特朗普說道:「所有政客都是資本家的狗,希拉里收我的錢所以要給我幹事,在場這些和我辯論的,幾個沒收過我的錢? 」

特朗普還稱作為一名商人,為了拉關係、套近乎,他曾向許多政治家捐款,不論其屬於哪個政黨。他說:「之前我給許多人捐過款。當他們給我打電話,我就會捐款。這樣一來,兩三年後當我有所求於他們時,他們也會答應我。」

他還說,他用錢收買政客,他想讓這些政客幹什麼,他們就得幹什麼。比如,2005年他要求克林頓夫婦參加他的婚禮,他們就乖乖地前往。

葉利欽連任後,俄羅斯的經濟更加的糟糕,而寡頭則越來越富有,人民更加的民不聊生。

下面我們來看看俄羅斯在那段時間的經濟數據:1991年蘇聯解體,葉利欽擔任俄羅斯首任總統,開始走資本主義道路,經濟持續下滑;1996年葉利欽在寡頭的支持下,獲得連任,經濟持續下滑,民不聊生;1999年,葉利欽不得不宣布辭職,由副總理普京接任。

在普京接手俄羅斯的時候,整個俄羅斯經濟幾乎完全的崩潰:外債累累,國民保險、醫療、教育都破產,而盈利的石油、天然氣、礦山全部都在俄國金融寡頭和外國資本手裡。

普京能力挽狂瀾嗎?

唯一的辦法就是:再次「打土豪、分田地」!

普京上台以後,首先要做的就是:拿回輿論的主導權!

於是,普京對俄羅斯的傳媒大亨古辛斯基開刀:2000年俄羅斯檢察院突然對其提出指控,罪名是詐騙和侵吞國家巨額財產——俄羅斯通過國際刑警組織對古辛斯基發出通緝令。

當然了,普京也不是完全沒有給他活路。

普京給他留了一條活路:如果想要取消通緝,古辛斯基必須答應普京一個條件——必須將其控制的電視網絡出售給國有公司,並永遠的離開俄羅斯,老老實實的待在國外。

就這樣,普京拿到了媒體的輿論權。

但是,這遠遠的不夠。

普京拿到媒體的輿論權以後,逐步的通過宣傳,逐漸的獲得了除了寡頭以外的所有階層的支持:俄羅斯的老百姓和軍隊全部站在了普京一側。

這時,對寡頭動手的時機成熟了!

2003年2月,普京突然召開經濟會議,將那些寡頭,也就是控制國家經濟命脈的大資本家全部召集到一起。

這次會議是電視直播,整個俄羅斯,甚至世界都可以看到。

普京沒有廢話,直接說:現在國家經濟面臨重大困難,需要各位的支持,我給你們兩條路:第一,要麼死;第二,要麼滾。

不交出企業的控制權,就是死;交出企業的控制權,就滾到國外去,每年拿到一定的分紅,讓你們安享晚年。

俄羅斯的那些寡頭自然不甘心,尤其是俄國最大的尤科斯石油公司、俄前首富米哈伊爾·霍多爾科夫斯基公開反對說:俄羅斯的經濟發展差並不是他們壟斷了俄羅斯的經濟導致的,而是政府腐敗導致的。

然後,他給了普京一個詳細的資料。

然而,普京話鋒一轉:如果不是你們偷稅漏稅,不斷的賄賂政府官員,他們會貪污腐敗嗎?

話,談不下去了,於是普京說散會。

幾天後,尤科斯石油尤科斯公司總裁、俄前首富米哈伊爾·霍多爾科夫斯基,被捕入獄,新成立的俄羅斯國家石油公司吞併了尤科斯的石油公司。

解決了尤科斯以後,普京再次召開會議,說道:現在國家經濟困難,老百姓生活艱難,大家都是國家棟樑,應該幫助國家度過難關。你們把你們手中的油田、氣田、礦山、金融的賣給國家,國家也不白拿,給你們一些錢,每年有分紅,也不限制你們出國度假和旅遊。搞企業多累啊,風險還大,你們交出股權後,以後就不用整天提心弔膽的,老百姓也不恨你們了,多好的事情啊。

有些人,還是不樂意,說:你這不是民主,違背俄羅斯的憲法。

普京說,這樣吧,這事也不是短期內能談攏的,你們先回去思考幾天,過幾天我們再談這個問題。

幾天後,那些反對最厲害的寡頭,有的莫名其妙的死了,有的被各種罪名給抓進了大牢,還有一些被流放到西伯利亞了。

然後,普京再次召開會議,再也沒有敢反對的人了。

這段歷史,大家可以看看下面的紀錄片:


若視頻播放不了,請點擊查看視頻

搞掂了這些寡頭後,普京將目光對準那些外國公司。

英國BP,日本財團,法國康菲等等,也都把持着不少俄國油氣田。

對待外國公司,普京不能採取對待國內寡頭那種方式,畢竟俄羅斯還得在國際上混。但是,普京也有手段。

普京不斷的派人對那些外國公司進行查賬、查環保問題、查賄賂問題,搞的那些外國企業無法正常生產。

那些外國公司不斷的被騷擾,根本無法正常經營,於是他們找到普京,問道:您到底想要做什麼,給個痛快的話吧。

普京也不藏着,說道:我們的國有企業想要收購大家的石油、礦產等,價格嘛,高高的,你們也可以入股,大家一起做生意發大財。

那些國外企業一想:不答應,整天被普京搞的也無法生產,還不如答應算了,畢竟能拿到錢,而且還可以入股獲得分紅。

就這樣,普京幹掉了那些寡頭,又收拾了那些國際資本,將關係到國計民生的行業全部收歸國有。

在做完這些事情以後,恰逢世界經濟也開始好轉,對石油的需求量不斷增加,油價不斷上漲,俄羅斯的經濟飛速發展,政府越來越有錢。

有錢以後,普京就開始不斷的搞民生,教育免費、醫療免費……

老百姓的日子不斷的變好,普京的支持率不斷的高漲。

俄羅斯石油徹底被國家控制以後,有錢了,再加上軍事不弱,於是普京就開始在世界上「得瑟」了,不斷的用低油價收買東歐國家(俄羅斯的石油和天然氣賣給歐洲比國際價格低三分之一左右),甚至包括德國、意大利等西歐國家,俄羅斯在歐洲和世界上的影響力越來越大,甚至開始逐漸的動搖美國在歐洲的根基……

2008年美國操縱了沙特等國家,國際油價暴跌,俄羅斯經濟承受重打擊;美國不斷推動北約東擴,圍堵俄羅斯……

事實上,我們從上面的過程中就可以看出:現在的美國和普京上任前的俄羅斯幾乎是一模一樣的。

美國的媒體也被那些大資本家控制着,美國的經濟命脈也被華爾街控制着,他們左右着美國的政壇——這就是特朗普所說的「美國所有政客都是資本家的狗」。

現在的美國,是這個世界上最奇怪的資本主義國家,美國的一切都被資本控制着。

我們說俄羅斯是資本主義,但是國家直接控制着關係到國計民生的企業;日本是資本主義國家,但是日本政府是日本40%上市企業的大股東;德國、法國等也是資本主義國家,但是他們的央行至少被政府控制着……

這些資本主義國家,政府都有一定的能力來制衡資本!

而美國呢?

美國政府什麼都控制不住,非但沒有國企,也不持有那些壟斷企業的股份,就連美聯儲都是獨立的,不受政府控制!

歷史是驚人的相似!

現在的美國就和俄羅斯葉利欽時代幾乎是一模一樣的,資本控制一切,美國人民的生活水平幾十年沒有提高,只不過現在還沒有到民不聊生的地步。

我們可以預料到:如果再這麼下去,要不了幾年,美國就會徹底的被資本給掏空了,人民將無法生存。

那時,一場革命將無法避免!

20世紀最大的政治災難是蘇聯解體,或許21世界最大的政治災難就是美國發生無產階級革命或美國解體!

我堅信,這一切一定會發生!