印度新冠病人中致命“黑真菌症”激增

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有医生认为,这种罕见真菌病的爆发与恐慌性使用类固醇来对抗新冠病毒有关。黑真菌症 (black fungus)能使50%以上患者在几天内死亡。。。。

Indien Hyderabad | Covid-Genesener, Pilzinfektion
在海德拉巴一医院,医生正在检查一名新冠康复后感染了 “黑真菌 “的病人  

(德国之声中文网)印度政府本周四(5月20日)通告,指令对影响新冠患者的一种罕见真菌病进行更严密监测。当局称,在首都新德里将专设病房,治疗感染”黑真菌症”(black fungus,即“毛霉菌病”)患者。   

孟买所在的马哈拉施特拉邦是在第二波新冠病毒感染中受灾最重地区的之一,截至周四已经报告确诊2000多例这种毛霉菌感染病例。 

与此同时,拉贾斯坦邦和特兰加纳邦双双宣布爆发 “黑真菌症 “疫情。

该疾病的出现给已疲于应对全球新冠最高日染疫数的印度医疗系统带来更大负担。

谁有感染 “黑真菌症”的风险?

免疫系统较弱的新冠病毒感染者和糖尿病患者尤其易感染毛霉菌病。 

印度卫生部长阿加瓦尔(Lav Agarwal)在致各邦政府的一封信中指出,毛霉菌病已在印度构成对接受类固醇治疗的新冠患者和现有糖尿病患者的新挑战。 

阿加瓦尔呼吁各邦政府依照《流行病法》将其列为 “应报告疾病”,这意味着有关当局必须识别并追踪每一个病例。

 “黑真菌症 “会有何症状?

这种疾病之所以也被称为 “黑霉菌症”,因为它导致鼻子上方变黑或变色。 该疾病还可能导致视力模糊或重影、胸痛、呼吸困难和咳血。  

一些医生认为,用于治疗严重新冠患者的强效类固醇会降低人体免疫力、提高糖分水平,从而有助于 “黑真菌症 “传播。

许多用于对抗新冠的药物抑制了人体的免疫系统,而免疫系统通常会保护人体免受真菌感染。 

这种疾病使50%以上的病人在数天内死亡,为此,在某些情况下,外科大夫只能切除患者眼睛和上颚,以防止毛霉菌在体内继续扩散。

(法新社,路透社)

© 2021年 德国之声版权声明:本文所有内容受到着作权法保护,如无德国之声特别授权,不得擅自使用。任何不当行为都将导致追偿,并受到刑事追究。 

 <ul class="slides">  <li class="first">  <img src="https://cdn.china.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/17115621/20210917015617-6143f5c1ad6a9.jpg" title="Relatives of a deceased COVID-19 patient grieve in front of a hospital in the Indian city of Ahmedabad. The health situation has spiraled out of control. The country recorded more than 333,000 new infections in the last 24 hours — the highest daily caseload in the world. That means more than 1 million people in India have been infected with the virus in the past four days alone." alt="Relatives of a deceased COVID-19 patient grieve in front of a hospital in the Indian city of Ahmedabad. The health situation has spiraled out of control. The country recorded more than 333,000 new infections in the last 24 hours — the highest daily caseload in the world. That means more than 1 million people in India have been infected with the virus in the past four days alone."/>
<h4>印度疫情水深火热 医疗系统濒临崩溃</h4> <h2>不能承受之痛</h2> <p>这里是印度艾哈迈达巴德市一家医院前。图中悲痛的两人刚刚在疫情中失去了亲人。在印度,新冠疫情已然失控,在过去数日里,印度每日新增病例超过33万。仅仅4月23日一天,新增就超过34.6万,又一次打破前一日的记录。</p>  </li>  <li class="hideBeforeLoad">  <img src="https://cdn.china.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/17115625/20210917015622-6143f5c64420f.jpg" title="COVID-19 patients wait to be treated at this hospital in New Delhi. Many hospitals are completely overwhelmed. We are running desperately short of beds, desperately short of oxygen [and] essential medicines, Shuchin Bajaj, an Indian doctor and director of a hospital chain, told DW. We are turning away patients. It's breaking our hearts. The situation in the country is almost apocalyptic." alt="COVID-19 patients wait to be treated at this hospital in New Delhi. Many hospitals are completely overwhelmed. We are running desperately short of beds, desperately short of oxygen [and] essential medicines, Shuchin Bajaj, an Indian doctor and director of a hospital chain, told DW. We are turning away patients. It's breaking our hearts. The situation in the country is almost apocalyptic."/>
<h4>印度疫情水深火热 医疗系统濒临崩溃</h4> <h2>医院人满为患</h2> <p>很多新冠患者正在新德里一家医院里等待治疗。在印度,很多医院人满为患。印度医生、连锁医院负责人巴贾杰(Duchin Bajaj)告诉德国之声:“我们急需病床,急需氧气和基本药物。我们不得不把病人们拒之门外。这让我们心碎。”</p>  </li>  <li class="hideBeforeLoad">  <img src="https://cdn.china.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/17115627/20210917015625-6143f5c96332e.jpg" title="Many desperate patients still set out for hospital — and sometimes have to wait for hours in front of them, like this man in a motor rickshaw in Ahmedabad. At least he got one of the increasingly scarce oxygen cylinders. In Delhi alone, according to official figures, there is a shortage of around 5,000 intensive care beds, and some hospitals have almost run out of oxygen." alt="Many desperate patients still set out for hospital — and sometimes have to wait for hours in front of them, like this man in a motor rickshaw in Ahmedabad. At least he got one of the increasingly scarce oxygen cylinders. In Delhi alone, according to official figures, there is a shortage of around 5,000 intensive care beds, and some hospitals have almost run out of oxygen."/>
<h4>印度疫情水深火热 医疗系统濒临崩溃</h4> <h2>绝望的等待</h2> <p>很多人根本进不去医院,需要在医院门前等待数小时。例如,艾哈迈达巴德的人力车里的这位先生。他至少还得到了一个氧气瓶。在印度,氧气瓶日益紧缺。根据官方数据,仅德里地区就缺少大约5000张重症监护病床,一些医院的氧气也用完了。</p>  </li>  <li class="hideBeforeLoad">  <img src="https://cdn.china.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/17115629/20210917015628-6143f5cc0bf46.jpg" title="Many places across the country, like here in Allahabad, are seeing people crowd oxygen refilling stations with empty cylinders to bring their relatives. Oxygen is already being traded at exorbitant prices on the black market. The government is considering stopping operations at oil refineries and other industries that use oxygen for production so it can be provided to hospitals." alt="Many places across the country, like here in Allahabad, are seeing people crowd oxygen refilling stations with empty cylinders to bring their relatives. Oxygen is already being traded at exorbitant prices on the black market. The government is considering stopping operations at oil refineries and other industries that use oxygen for production so it can be provided to hospitals."/>
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<h4>印度疫情水深火热 医疗系统濒临崩溃</h4> <h2>“双重变种”病毒的快速传播</h2> <p>一些专家认为,印度疫情恶化的原因是传染性特别强的“双重变种”病毒B.1.617的快速传播。这让许多国家对来自印度的旅行者实施入境禁令,并对印度发出旅行警告。美国甚至对已接种新冠疫苗的公民也发出前往印度的旅行警告。德国也在周六(4月24日)发布了针对印度的入境禁令。 </p>  </li>  <li class="hideBeforeLoad">  <img src="https://cdn.china.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/17115640/20210917015635-6143f5d39c759.jpg" title="India is home to more than 1.3 billion people. But less than 2 % of the adult population has been vaccinated so far. That's despite the country being one of the world's largest vaccine producers. But the order came late for Indian pharmaceutical companies to first meet domestic demand rather than exporting jabs. From May 1, vaccines will be available to all Indians over the age of 18." alt="India is home to more than 1.3 billion people. But less than 2 % of the adult population has been vaccinated so far. That's despite the country being one of the world's largest vaccine producers. But the order came late for Indian pharmaceutical companies to first meet domestic demand rather than exporting jabs. From May 1, vaccines will be available to all Indians over the age of 18."/>
<h4>印度疫情水深火热 医疗系统濒临崩溃</h4> <h2>缺乏疫苗</h2> <p>印度人口超过13亿。尽管印度是世界上最大的疫苗生产国之一,但到目前为止,只有不到2%的成年人口接种了新冠疫苗。印度制药公司已经接到命令,首先要满足国内需求。从5月1日起,所有18岁以上的印度人都可以接种新冠疫苗。</p>  </li>  <li class="hideBeforeLoad">  <img src="https://cdn.china.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/17115643/20210917015640-6143f5d89726f.jpg" title="Experts say it's not just the sluggish vaccination rate that is to blame for the rapid spread of the coronavirus in India. Religious, political and sporting events across the nation have also played a big role. The Kumbh Mela, India's largest Hindu pilgrimage festival, was attended by several million people. During the ritual bath in the Ganges, there were few signs of masks and social distancing." alt="Experts say it's not just the sluggish vaccination rate that is to blame for the rapid spread of the coronavirus in India. Religious, political and sporting events across the nation have also played a big role. The Kumbh Mela, India's largest Hindu pilgrimage festival, was attended by several million people. During the ritual bath in the Ganges, there were few signs of masks and social distancing."/>
<h4>印度疫情水深火热 医疗系统濒临崩溃</h4> <h2>群体聚会推波助澜</h2> <p>专家认为,印度疫情恶化的原因不仅是因为苗接种率低。全国各地的宗教、政治和体育活动也推波助澜。大壶节(Kumbh Mela)是最大的印度教朝圣节,聚集者众多。在恒河的沐浴仪式中,几乎没有人戴口罩和保持社交距离。</p>  </li>  <li class="hideBeforeLoad">  <img src="https://cdn.china.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/17115645/20210917015643-6143f5db881c9.jpg" title="Politics too has set a poor example so far. Regional elections were held in the state of West Bengal at the beginning of the month. There were mass rallies in the megacity of Kolkata during the campaign with leading politicians from the ruling BJP party. Prime Minister Narendra Modi also took part — and were celebrated by thousands of unmasked supporters." alt="Politics too has set a poor example so far. Regional elections were held in the state of West Bengal at the beginning of the month. There were mass rallies in the megacity of Kolkata during the campaign with leading politicians from the ruling BJP party. Prime Minister Narendra Modi also took part — and were celebrated by thousands of unmasked supporters."/>
<h4>印度疫情水深火热 医疗系统濒临崩溃</h4> <h2>危险的政治活动</h2> <p>迄今为止,印度政治界也未能做出好榜样。本月初,西孟加拉邦举行了地区选举。竞选期间,在加尔各答这座大城市里,执政的印度人民党的主要政客都举行大规模集会。总理莫迪也出席了集会,现场数千名支持者都没有戴口罩。</p> <p class="author"> 作者: Thomas Latschan </p>  </li> </ul> <br class="clearfix"/>               

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