The origin of the term "green card" is that the U.S. documents issued to permanent residents are green, so the Chinese are used to calling the right of abode a "green card." But permanent residents must meet certain conditions before they can apply for citizenship of the country, that is, obtain the nationality of the country. In recent years, some countries have introduced convenient immigration programs, first issuing a temporary residence status, and then applying for permanent residence or citizenship through the restricted conditions. So how far are these temporary residence status, "green card" and "permanent status" after immigration from "nationality"? What is the difference in treatment between them?


  • U.S. Permanent Resident Card

The United States Permanent Resident Card (English: United States Permanent Resident Card, also known as green card, green card) is an ID card used to prove that foreigners have permanent resident status in the United States of America.
"Obtaining a green card" is used to refer to the immigration process of becoming a permanent resident. The legal permanent residency of green card holders is an official immigration benefit, which includes conditional residence and work permits in the United States. The holder must maintain his permanent resident status. If a certain condition required for the status is no longer met, the holder may lose the status.

Foreigners who are applying for a green card can apply for two important permits.

  • One is the Authorized Employment Card (EAD), a temporary work permit that allows the alien to obtain a job in the United States.
  • The second is a pre-entry permit, which is a temporary travel certificate that allows the alien to return to the United States.

The rights conferred by the two permits are independent of any existing status granted to the foreigner. For example, a foreigner with an H-1B visa may have obtained a permit to work in the United States.


US Permanent Residence Card (also known as "Green Card") 2010 version

  • Use and keep

According to the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Law, green card holders are foreigners without U.S. citizenship. But it basically enjoys the same treatment as its own nationals in the United States, but it has no right to vote and to be elected.

According to the US immigration laws, permanent residents must use a valid immigrant visa and a valid home country passport when entering the United States, otherwise they are not allowed to enter the country.

  • Once you have a U.S. green card, as long as you have left the U.S. for no more than one year, the green card itself can be used as a valid immigration visa, and you do not need to go to the U.S. embassy or consulate to apply for another visa.
  • If you have left the United States for more than one year, you must apply for a re-entry permit (I-327) before leaving the country. As a valid immigrant visa for entry, the re-entry permit is valid for up to two years.
  • Cardholders who have not entered the United States for more than a period of time are likely to be sentenced to lose their permanent residency when entering the country, because the immigration law requires green card holders to leave the United States and must leave the country temporarily.

If the green card holder changes his status, his permanent residency will be eliminated. Therefore, if a permanent resident does not accidentally use an inconsistent identity (for example, filing taxes as a non-resident), his permanent resident status will be terminated at the same time. In addition, according to the precedent of the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit: Permanent resident status can be automatically lost through renunciation (such as living in another country) without first completing a form or an immigration court decision.

  • How to become a U.S. citizen

A lawful permanent resident who has lived in the United States as a permanent resident for 5 years (or 3 years after being married to a US citizen) and meets all the conditions listed by the USCIS can apply to become a US citizen. Citizens have more rights (and obligations) than permanent residents (which are still considered foreigners in this respect).

Some of the rights of U.S. citizens are:

  • The right to vote; the right to be elected in federal and state elections;
  • Eligibility to bring family members into the United States;
  • And qualifications to obtain positions in the federal government;

Other citizenship benefits include the visa-free convenience of some countries in the world, and certain circumstances that will cause permanent residents to be placed in the deportation process are not suitable for US citizens.


  • Canadian permanent residents

Canadian permanent resident refers to a person who is not a Canadian citizen but has obtained permission to stay, live and work in Canada indefinitely. Permanent residents must live in Canada for at least 5 years in every 2 years or they may lose their permanent resident status. However, the time spent staying outside of Canada due to accompanying a spouse with Canadian citizenship is considered to be the time spent in Canada.

A permanent resident has many of the same responsibilities and duties as a Canadian citizen, including the right to work for any business and government and provincial governments (restricted to certain regulated industries). The main difference is that permanent residents cannot vote for elections in Canada, nor can they run for public office or have a Canadian passport.

Permanent residents can apply for Canadian citizenship after living in Canada for three years, but this is not necessarily a necessary condition.

  • How to become a Canadian citizen

A Canadian permanent resident can apply for Canadian citizenship through naturalization after living in Canada for three years.

Applicants must meet all of the following requirements:

  • 18 years old
  • Already a permanent resident of Canada
  • Have lived in Canada for more than three years (in the past four years) before applying
  • Understanding Canada (Canadian Citizenship Test) is part of the entire application process, but only people aged 18 to 54 need to take the test
  • Understand the rights and duties of a Canadian citizen
  • Good character
  • Non war criminal

Children under 18
The naturalization requirements for children under 18 are different from those for adults:

  • The child must be a permanent resident of Canada
  • One of the parents of the child must be a Canadian citizen or is applying to become a Canadian citizen

The housing conditions and other requirements generally do not apply to children under 18 years of age.

Final Thoughts
For applicants who have obtained permanent resident status in Canada, the most distressing issue is "immigration supervision." The Canadian naturalization requirement is also the main assessment of the applicant’s residence time. You can apply for citizenship after you have lived for three years in four years. This is for applicants who have to give up their domestic business and settle in Canada after obtaining permanent residency status in Canada.

Warm reminder: In order to maintain their long-term status, it is recommended to meet the requirements of the Immigration Bureau according to the requirements. Do not take illegal or paranoid means to try to escape from residence. Once discovered by the authorities, the immigration status will face the risk of cancellation .



  • Permanent resident

Australian Permanent Resident (Australian Permanent Resident), abbreviated as PR, refers to a foreign citizen who can reside permanently in Australia because of an Australian permanent resident visa. The visa holder is not an Australian federal citizen, but after accumulating a certain amount of residence time, he can be naturalized and become an Australian.

Foreigners holding permanent resident visas can stay in Australia indefinitely. According to the immigration plan, the first five-year visa will be issued together with the permanent residence permit. Until the initial visa expires, the visa holder can enter and exit Australia freely. A major feature of a permanent resident visa is that even if the latest visa expires, the holder can still stay in Australia indefinitely without violating the entry regulations.

After the initial visa expires, if the holder wants to continue entering and leaving Australia as a permanent resident, they must obtain a Resident Return Visa (RRV). Those who leave Australia for too long may lose their permanent resident status.

Permanent residents may be revoked by the Minister of Immigration and Citizenship. But unless it is a violation of the law, it does not appear often.

Permanent residents enjoy many civic rights, including free or subsidized laws, medical care, and education. But it does not have the right to vote in federal elections. Some states allow permanent residents of Commonwealth countries to vote in state or local elections. Citizens of Commonwealth countries who registered to vote on January 1984, 1 continue to have the right to vote.

  • Obtain citizenship

Any person must first become a permanent resident of Australia before applying for Australian citizenship and have resided in Australia on a legal visa for at least four consecutive years, of which at least one year is an Australian permanent resident visa.

After meeting the time requirement, permanent resident visa holders can apply for a naturalization test in any state or Australian embassy or consulate abroad.
The test is divided into two parts: interview and computer test. After passing the test, there will be a process waiting for the Federal Department of Immigration to determine. Once the qualifications are confirmed, they will be provided with a time for a naturalization ceremony. After taking an oath at the ceremony, they will become an Australian citizen by law.

According to federal law, any citizen who was not born in the mainland will automatically lose the status of permanent resident in Australia after being naturalized as an Australian citizen. In addition, Australia is also a country that allows multiple nationalities. Federal law stipulates that Australian citizens can freely choose to retain and use passports of other countries, but as Australian citizens, they must use an Australian passport to enter and exit at the Australian border.


Regarding EU Permanent Resident Status

  • What is a permanent resident of the EU

The long-term resident of the European Union, that is, the long-term resident of EC, is an identity issued by EU member countries after the EU Long-term Residency Act in 2003 and internalized by the member states. Permanent EU resident status has the right to settle, work, do business and study freely in other EU countries. Holders of this status can study in any EU country and enjoy the tuition treatment of citizens of the target EU country without paying the standard tuition fees for international students of citizens outside the EU.

  • The nature of EU permanent resident status

Permanent residency status within the EU, and the status has the right to work, study and do business within the EU. Although the name of this identity is long-term resident of EC, that is, long-term resident of the European Union, the EU Act clearly stipulates that the identity is permenant, that is, permanent. It also stipulates that although the nature of EU permanent resident status is that of EU permanent residents, it needs to be updated every 5 years. Although it needs to be updated every 5 years, it is stipulated that the update must be automaticaly, and the update is automatic, although an application is required.

  • How to obtain EU permanent resident status

Any EU country has the right to issue EU permanent resident status. According to the provisions of EU law, the conditions of issuance are valid for 5 years of legal residence in an EU country (but residence based on study is not acceptable even for 5 years of residence), whether it is a legal resident status in an EU country or a permanent residence in an EU country Resident status requires 5 years of legal residence before you can apply for EU permanent resident status.
The specific requirement is that within these 5 years, the total leaving the EU shall not exceed 10 months, and the total leaving the EU shall not exceed 6 months.
EU law also authorizes EU member states to make appropriate adjustments according to their own national conditions when they internalize the EU bill into domestic laws.
At present, most countries have increased the requirements for passing the primary or intermediate level of the language of the country. However, there are also very few countries (currently only Portugal) on the issuance of EU long-term resident status very loose, neither requires a language test when applying for EU permanent residency status, nor does it stipulate that leaving the EU within 5 years cannot exceed 10 months. Spain does not stipulate that a language test is required to apply for EU permanent resident status, but Spain implements the rule that the total number of leaving the EU within 5 years does not exceed 10 months.


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