"Chinatown"-Official media of Chinese Australians

Australia's higher education industry is an export-oriented industry. For a new country with a history of less than 250 years, Australia's higher education industry is second only to the United States and the United Kingdom in terms of international competitiveness, and even higher than Canada. So what are the characteristics of Australia's higher education industry? Understanding these characteristics is essential for overseas students to study in Australia.

1. There are 41 universities in Australia

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In Australia, not any institution can call itself a university. Although higher education in Australia, especially university education, is in charge of policies and funding by the federal government, the state governments are responsible for actual operation and management (this is a characteristic of the federal system like Australia). However, the birth of any university must pass state legislation.

Currently, there are only 41 Australian universities with qualifications. Among them, 11 in New South Wales, 9 in Victoria, 8 in Queensland, 3 in South Australia, 5 in Western Australia, 1 in Tasmania, 2 in the Capital Region, and 2 in the Northern Region. According to the year of establishment, the first university in Australia was the University of Sydney, founded in 1851, while the newest university in Australia was the MCD University of Theology, which was formally established as a university through Victorian legislation in 2011.

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2. Australian universities are mostly public

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Like other countries, Australian universities are divided into two parts: public and private. However, the Australian higher education industry established under the British education system is mostly public universities. There are 37 public universities across Australia. These include the University of Wollongong in New South Wales, Western Sydney University, University of Technology Sydney, University of Sydney, Newcastle University, University of New South Wales, University of New England, Southern Cross University, Macquarie University, Charles Stewart University, Australia Catholic University (11 in total), University of Melbourne in Victoria, University of Victoria, Swinburne University of Technology, RMIT University, Monash University, La Trobe University, Commonwealth University, Deakin University (8 in total), West The University of Western Australia, Edith Cowan University, Curtin University, Murdoch University (4) in Australia, Sunshine Coast University in Queensland, University of Southern Queensland, University of Queensland, Queensland University of Technology, James Cook University, Georgia Reeves University, Central Queensland University (7 in total), University of Tasmania in Tasmania (1 in total), University of South Australia in South Australia, University of Adelaide, and Flinders University (3 in total) ), University of Canberra and Australian National University in the Capital Region (2 in total), Northern Region: Charles Darwin University (1 in total). Some public universities also have private colleges or profit-making companies. For example, the University of Melbourne once opened a private university in Melbourne, and Monash University is still operating Monash College.

3. Australian private and independent universities

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Bond University in Queensland was originally a partnership between the Bond Corporation of Australia and EIE, a Japanese company. In 1987, the rectified operation was a private non-profit university.

The University of Notre Dame, headquartered in Port Fremantle, Western Australia, was founded in 1989 and is the first private Catholic university in Australia. The main campus of The MCD University of Divinity (The MCD University of Divinity) is located in Kew, Victoria. The school is the only nationally registered professional university in Australia. Although the predecessor of the university, the Melbourne College of Divinity (Melbourne College of Divinity), offers the second major in theology in Australian history, but the school only obtained university qualifications in 2011. MCD Theological University is an independent university.

The Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education (Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education), an independent university founded in 1999, aims to provide training, continuing education and higher education for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

4. Australian non-university institutions also offer university courses

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As the door to Australian higher education gradually opens, competition is becoming increasingly fierce. In addition to registered public, private, and independent universities, there are also many companies and public TAFE (secondary, technical) colleges that provide registered higher education and vocational education and training (Vocational Education and Training, equivalent to Chinese Vocational and technical) courses.

According to the law, only through the Tertiary Education Quality Standards Agency (Tertiary Education Quality Standards Agency) recognition, these institutions can open these government-recognized university bachelor, master and doctoral programs. According to the latest website of the bureau, a total of 173 companies have obtained higher education provider qualifications. Most of these companies are private profit organizations. Of course, some state government-owned Technical and Further Education colleges have also opened university courses. Some foreign education companies have also settled in Australia to invest in the higher education industry, which is becoming fiercely competitive.

These non-university-established higher education courses can be established in the name of the company or linked to the name of an existing university. This will be reflected in the graduation diploma. For example, Homesglen TAFE in Melbourne has partnered with the University of Canberra to provide a bachelor's degree in tourism and hotel management. Students can choose a bachelor's diploma from the University of Canberra or a bachelor's diploma from Homesglen TAFE.

5. Australian universities are becoming national and international

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Due to the increasingly fierce competition in the Australian higher education industry, universities and higher education providers have expanded from their main "battlefields" to all parts of the country, and cross-state access to competing markets in other states. 41 of the 11 universities in Australia have adopted this strategy. These include the Australian Catholic University, Central Queensland University, Charles Stewart University, Curtin University, La Trobe University, MCD University of Theology, Southern Cross University, University of Notre Dame, University of New South Wales, University of Tasmania and University of Victoria .

Other universities have established campuses overseas. The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) established two wholly-owned campuses in Vietnam in 1998 (named RMIT International University), one in Ho Chi Minh City and the other in Hanoi. This brings the number of students registered overseas by the school to 2. Monash University, another Victorian public university, has opened a graduate school in Suzhou in cooperation with Southeast University of China.

6. Australian universities expand the industry chain

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In addition to nationalization and internationalization, some Australian universities have vigorously expanded their industrial chain strategies. For example, some practice-oriented universities of science and technology, such as Swinburne University of Technology, continue to develop vocational education and training (TAFE or Vocational Education and Training) on ​​the basis of the university department, making it an industrial chain and increasing the absorption of students. And to provide students with one-stop higher education, increase the cohesion of different systems, and help students complete the subjects they want to learn in the shortest time. At this point, some TAFE academies are also moving towards this strategic route from the other end. For example, NMIT TAFE College in Melbourne, in collaboration with La Trobe University, plans to establish a polytechnic universioty. The main difference between a university and a technical college is that the university focuses more on academic projects, while the technical college focuses on vocational training. This seems to be similar to the existing universities of science and technology in Australia. The following diagram of the Australian diploma framework shows the overlap of various education fields.

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There are many ways to go to university in Australia. It is not necessary to enter the university directly through the college entrance examination. Some students can first go to a vocational education and training institution to study for a few years of diploma courses, and then bring the credits into university courses, generally starting from the second year of university . In addition, working first before going back to university is also an option for many Australians, because not only do you not need college entrance examination results as an adult, but work experience can also be an important indicator of admission.

7. It is easy to change majors and schools in Australian universities

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In 2014, the latest figures from the Australian Federal Ministry of Education show that about one in five students will withdraw from their original major at the end of their first year of university studies. Many of these students have changed departments or universities. Because Australian universities adopt the credit system, in universities, students’ credits can be fully or partially recognized by new universities or new majors. Some students even want to study medicine, but because they have not achieved the test scores, they enter other majors. After the first year of study, they can enter the medical major they originally wanted to study with excellent results. This is what the saying goes, "all roads lead to Rome".

Passing a university subject is not the final word. In many subjects, the final exam is only set as 50% of the grade, and other usual homework will also be counted as part of the grade. If the subject fails, unless for special reasons, make-up exams are not allowed. Of course, universities are also very rational. If the student fails to take the exam and the homework is late, but the student has sufficient reasonable reasons, the student can apply for special consideration, and the school will resolve it as appropriate, such as taking a make-up exam, but for students who fail without reason, generally they do not To make up the qualifications, I had to take this course again. This may seriously affect students' future study arrangements.

8. Australian universities are based on the British higher education system, but are being Americanized

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The Australian higher education system originated from the United Kingdom. Therefore, most of the schooling system is 3 years of bachelor degree (engineering and education 4 years, law 5 years, medicine, dentist 6 years), master degree is usually 1-2 years, and doctorate degree usually takes 3 years. Every year, many students enter the dual degree program, and they need to spend 4 to 5 years to complete two three-year courses. However, the Australian education system is increasingly introducing American mechanisms. For example, some universities need to take the Graduate Management Entrance Examination (GMAT) of American MBA University when entering the business administration MBA. Some Australian universities have introduced the DBA degree of Doctor of Business Administration from American universities. Half of this doctorate is in class and half is in the form of essays.

In 2008, the University of Melbourne became the first university in Australia to fully introduce the American university system. It only taught a wide range of subjects at the bachelor's level, and abolished the Bachelor of Laws and Bachelor of Medicine. Specialist studies are included in the master's and doctoral courses. The advantage of this approach is that in addition to some compulsory courses, many courses can be selected by students within the department or even across disciplines and departments, and there is a lot of space.

At the same time, the three-semester system is becoming more and more popular among students. Generally speaking, Australian universities only have two semesters of teaching time each year, and some universities offer courses for three semesters a year to meet the needs of students who want to complete the courses as soon as possible, so that students can finish their studies one year in advance.

9. Australian universities have different characteristics

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Australian universities have their own characteristics. One of the differences is that polytechnic universities (also known as universities of science and technology) and non-technical universities are quite different in concept and diploma structure. Generally speaking, polytechnic universities pay more attention to hands-on practical ability. The content and subjects related to practice occupy a certain proportion of the subjects studied. Such universities are closely related to industry. However, the majors set up by these universities are very detailed, most of the courses are required courses, and the scope of elective courses is relatively small. But the employment goal after graduation is clear.

Non-technical universities focus on theoretical research and teaching. The curriculum is relatively broad, and students can choose more elective courses. At the same time, a business subject covers multiple majors, which is good for students to change majors. However, the employment goal after graduation from such a degree is not clear.

Many "comers" believe that Australia's bachelor's degree is the most valuable and the most difficult to learn. Only students who have a bachelor's degree in law or medicine have the opportunity to obtain a license in Australia. The master's and doctoral degrees in these two majors can only allow students to continue research in this area, and additional rigorous assessments are required to obtain a license.

10. There are not many scholarships in Australian universities

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The Australian government provides scholarships for overseas students to some Asian countries. Each school provides a limited number of scholarships for students with excellent test scores, and a limited number of scholarships especially for PhD and master students. Most Australian students do not have scholarships awarded by universities. These scholarships and bursaries are issued by the social welfare department of the Australian government according to the individual's different circumstances. Aboriginal bursaries, Australian student bursaries, youth allowances, etc.

The article is reproduced from "Australia Pericom Study and Immigration"

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