When will it be destroyed!
"In the beginning, no one cared about this disaster. It was just a wildfire, a drought, the extinction of a species, the disappearance of a city, until this disaster is closely related to everyone."
-"The Wandering Earth"
alsoremember?
In August this year, the Amazon jungle fires,Nearly 100 million hectaresThe forest was burned down.
A little earlier, the California fire,76.7 hectaresLand was burned.
It's allOne of the worst fires in human history!
And now the area of ​​wildfires in Australia,
More than the two fires combined!
So far, the total area of ​​fire across Australia hasOver 630 million hectares,
Equivalent to 6 Amazon fires
8 California fires!
More intuitively, 630 million hectares is 6.3 square kilometers.
This is equivalent to burning
10 Shanghai
8 Melbourne
5 Sydney
3.7 Beijing
1.8 Hainan Province
0.5 England
And Victoria’s total burned area has reached82.8 hectares,This is nearly twice the 2009 hectares of Black Friday in 45!
Equivalent to an entire Melbourne
It's about to be burned!
And since September till now
Estimated to have5 billionAustralian animals buried in wildfires
Charcoal
What’s more frightening is that today, many places in Australia, including Victoria, are stillHigh temperature + strong windExtreme weather,
The wildfire situation is still getting worse,
This number may continue to rise in the future...
Some netizens released live pictures of Mallacoota, a small town in eastern Victoria, at 11:37 this morning.
Mountain fires for many days have caused people hereThe sky was burnt blood red.
But today, blue sky and white sun, but hereIt's pitch black, even people can't see it, like the end of the world...
The latest news:
Today, Victoria still has50 locationsThe forest fire is raging.
The emergency department has released6 "Evacuation immediately" warnings and 11 emergency warnings for wildfires.
Up to now, the Victorian wildfire has caused2 people died and 21 people were missing.
Affected by wildfires, currently,The Victoria Hume Freeway between Seymour and Euroa is closed in both directions.
Everyone who travels by car, don't pass through this area!
Wildfires are also out of control in places like NSW, South Australia, and Queensland.
For the first time in Australian history, a reserve army was forced to be called up!
In view of the worsening situation, Australian Prime Minister Morrison and the Minister of Defense jointly announced this afternoon,
Comprehensive military response to wildfires
Send more Australian Defence Forces to participate in the fire fighting!
include:
1. Assemble as many as 3000 reserve soldiers, another warship, and 4 other firefighting aircraft to extinguish the fire on the east coast of Australia.
This is the history of Australia
For the first time to reserve soldiers
Issue a mandatory convening order!
2. Today,The largest battleship of the Royal Australian Navy-the USS Adelaide amphibious assault ship(HMAS Adelaide) will depart from Sydney and arrive at the border of Victoria and NSW tomorrow afternoon. This ship is full of disaster relief supplies and will help the affected residents to evacuate.
3. The Australian Defence Force from Brisbane to AdelaideCamp will be open, To provide accommodation for residents who are temporarily homeless affected by wildfires.
4. The Australian Defence Force will establish aNational Secret Service, Coordinate and cooperate with wildfire rescue forces across Australia.
5. Australian Defence Force GeneralDispatch more planes and helicopters, To provide assistance for the transportation and evacuation of wildfire areas.
The wildfires in Australia started in the second half of this year, and they are still intensifying and show no signs of abating.
By now, everyone must have accumulated a lot of questions.
Why are the wildfires in Australia so serious this year?
All in all,Is it a natural disaster or a man-made disaster?
Why didn't the government dispatch the army to help earlier?
Why not use artificial rainfall?
Today, Xiaowei will discuss this topic with everyone.
Wildfire in Australia
What kind of existence is it?
The answer to this question in four words is
Normal operation
For example, on Wikipedia, you can find a
List of Australian Bushfire Seasons
Of huge topics.
It not only records dozens of major wildfire incidents that have occurred in Australia for more than a century,
It also contains data for each year for the past 20 years from this century to the present.
In other words, wildfires are commonplace in Australia
Burning every year
The degree of perversion.
Then this matter is worth talking about, all talking
One won’t trip over a stone twice
But Australia is in the wild, but it is still
Burned every year...
But after the new year it continues to burn...
Is this a natural disaster?
Or man-made disaster?
There is a fact that we have to admit, that is
Australia's natural environment has indeed created good conditions for wildfires.
The Australian continent is vast and sparsely populated, and the proportion of human settlements is extremely low.
Remove the artificially developed pastures,
The rest is not the desert Gobi, but the bushes and virgin forests.
And even worse, the most abundant forest in Australia is,
eucalyptus
The biggest feature of eucalyptus
Is inside
Rich in fat
These greases will even be evaporated into the air, forming a blue mist.
This is how the Blue Mountains in Sydney got its name.
Because of the oil,
So eucalyptus is also very easy to burn!
In addition, eucalyptus accounts for more than70%
It can be said that Australia’s forest is an unlimited supply
Fuel depot
Second, although the Australian continent is surrounded by the ocean, it is quite short of water.
There are no decent rivers on such a large piece of land!
To put it plainly is drought
The kind that really kills people
In terms of specific climate types,
I won’t mention the large desert in the central inland.
Other typical examples are Western Australia and South Australia
Mediterranean climate
The biggest feature is that it is hot and dry in summer;
Let’s take a look at the eastern region where the fire is raging this time, regardless of whether Australia’s major cities are facing the sea.
But in the vast inland areas, such as NSW,
More than half of the entire state belongs to
Semi-arid climate
In other words, the annual precipitation cannot keep up with the evaporation.
Coupled with the issue of climate change in recent years, or the increase in extreme climates, it also makes
It's getting hotter
Things are drier
To make a simple summary, you can say
Australia is born to be huge
Flammable
But although it is flammable, it is not spontaneously combustible after all!
Gas stations are also flammable, and I haven't seen gas stations burn every day!
No matter how much eucalyptus oil is, no matter how flammable, you won’t take a lighter and light it up, right?
These fires,How does it burn every time?
From a natural point of view, the most likely cause of fire is
lightning
For example, on December 12 not long ago, Victoria experienced a day of high temperatures and strong winds.
Another thunderstorm came in the evening,
Lightning alone lit dozens of fire spots overnight!
But even though we mentioned wildfires,
It is always easier to associate with natural disasters.
But in fact, there are actually many times when wildfires
Not just natural disasters
More man-made disaster
In Australia’s history, there have been numerous wildfire incidents,
After investigation, it was directly because
ArtificialCaused!
Give a typical example:
In 2013, a tragic wildfire broke out in the Blue Mountains, a famous tourist destination in Sydney.
The fire not only caused heavy losses to the Blue Mountains, but also destroyed more than 500 houses!
However, the investigation into the cause of the fire afterwards was shocking!
The first two fire spots,
One is because the telephone poles fell over,
Caused by a short circuit...
Another place is even more weird, because
When the local army is engaged in training,
Caused by improper blasting...
This shot is really the most expensive in Australian history...
However, the above is just unintentional
Accident
However, there is another more terrifying situation, which is
Intentional arson!
For people with bad intentions, arson can be described as
Easiest to operate
Lowest cost
Minimal risk
Way of crime!
Unfortunately, there are many such people in Australia.
Since the fire broke out last year, about the discovery
Deliberate arson
The news began to appear in the newspaper!
The fire in Melbourne's North last week is most likely considered arson
The fire in East Gippsland was also caused by humans
Then there is the Teenager of Poisonous Poison...
Then Teenager again...
Then Teenager again & again...
Trying to burn the "fire belt" to protect the hemp...
You know, there are so many who were caught and caught,
So how many have not been discovered?
And besides these deliberately,
How much else happened by accident?
In order to form a lightning bolt naturally, the meteorological conditions that need to be met are not generally complicated.
In contrast,
Make a small cigarette butt,
I don't know how many times it will be easier!
Australia is in front of wildfires,
Why is it so vulnerable?
Seeing wildfires intensifying, in many reports by Xiaowei,
There are also many anxious friends who have proposed various
One hundred thousandwhy
such as
Why are there so few firefighters?
Why not send out an army to destroy it?
Why not set up fire belts in advance?
Why not use artificial rainfall?
Etc., etc…
But if you simply emphasize these one-sidedness,
It's just that some people can't talk while standing.
First, Australia’s population and national strength really cannot support a huge fire brigade.
So most of the firefighting forces in Australia are voluntary.
Of the 7 firefighters currently fighting on the frontline, 99% are volunteers.
In terms of population ratio, it is really not easy to reach this number.
Xiaowei has already introduced a lot of information in this area, after all,
Limited population
Forced by national conditions
No way
Second, Australia did not dispatch troops to put out the fire. The reason is simple:
No tradition
The use of military forces to rescue disasters has always been an exclusive feature of China.
Although there are also abroad, but few,
At most, there will be heavy water. When a typhoon blows, do some rough work such as sailing, carrying bags, and carrying.
Fire fighting is different. This kind of technology is not within the skill range of the military.
Specialized in the surgical industry, especially in the face of the complex environment of the fire scene,
The layman is more often a disservice.
Third, burning fire tape is indeed a good way to resist fire.
The fire belt is a method of artificially removing combustibles within a certain range to achieve the purpose of resisting the spread of fire.
The establishment of fire belts usually adopts manual incineration at fixed points.
But this thing, one is not easy to burn, the amount of engineering is too large,
It is impossible to burn a few hundred kilometers at a time, and only focus on fortifications in individual areas.
The second is that the variables are so large that they might get out of control and get burnt.
When the fire belt was burned in the Blue Mountains in Sydney some time ago, because of the sudden change in wind direction,
I accidentally fired into fire and burned even camp...
Fourth, artificial rainfall is not so magical and not omnipotent.
In fact, Australia was the first country to study artificial cloud/rainfall technology.
But just as a clever woman asks for rice, artificial rainfall must have enough cumulonimbus as a resource.
Simply put, artificial rainfall is only when the weather is close to the rainfall critical point.
Inducing rainfall and increasing rainfall in advance cannot make rain out of thin air.
If there is no cloud in the sky, you can only release the cannon...
Moreover, the weather conditions vary widely and are extremely complex.
Sometimes human intervention may be self-defeating.
Finish the fairness
Next
Criticized
Australia’s system can only say that dealing with a small disaster can be passed by.
But in the violent fire this year,
The panties were burnt out...
First of all, in terms of the execution efficiency and response speed of disaster relief,
Australia is really only available
"Turtle Speed" To describe
Take the small town of Mallaccota that was besieged by the fire this time,
Residents12 month 31 numberI was forced to jump into the sea,
The warship that helped evacuate1 month 3 numberJust arrived!
Second, let’s return to the issue of military disaster relief.
Now that it is clearly known that firefighting power is a hard demand for Australia,
Your army does not have fire fighting skills now,
But even civilian volunteers can train,
Can't the army be trained?
Third, regarding the issue of deliberate arson,
This is the same as all other crime problems that plague Australia now
Catch every year,Put every year
Let it go,Catch and release
Especially now evenUnderageWhen they all started arson,
Law enforcement and judicial institutions have not come up with any effective deterrence and punishment programs.
Then this criminal behavior intensified,
Not surprising!
Write at the end
In a way
Australian history
Is a history of struggle against wildfires
But although in a hundred years
Technology, culture and economy are constantly developing
But the fire is also getting stronger and stronger
The reason for the period
It's really worth pondering the whole country
Maybe Australia should really make some changes
Otherwise, although this fire will eventually go out
But the next fire will come sooner or later
Source: Small and Micro Thinking
Some pictures from the Internet