The current US presidential election is the one that has attracted the most attention of Americans and other people in the past XNUMX years.
In today's world, order is reconstructed, conflicts of interest, new crowns shrouded, economic downturn, national confrontation tends to decouple, the haze of Islamization in Europe spreads, conservatism is beginning to awaken, and American voters are split in interests and ideology at an unprecedented level.This election will profoundly affect the evolution of the world's ideology and political structure.
This article analyzes the evolution of the American political ecology and the impact of this election from the perspective of the history of the two parties in the United States.
This article directory
XNUMX. Political balance
XNUMX. Political Game
XNUMX. Political correctness
American politics is a balanced politics under constitutionalism.The president is legally a representative of the United States, but his interests are a representative of his party supporters.The U.S. political, diplomatic and economic policies have obvious partisan traces.To explain with the theory of the public choice school, politics, government, political parties and politicians also follow the self-interested principle of the market.
Tracing back to the source, the differences between the Republican Party and the Democratic Party in the United States stemmed from different ideologies.The Republican Party tends to the right and is called the right or the right, also known as the conservative; the Democratic Party leans to the left and is called the left or the left, and is also called the liberal.
What is left and right in the United States?Many people do not understand.American columnist Dennis Prager listed a series of simple questions to reflect the different opinions of the two factions. Scientist Wu Jun translated them. I will select some of them as follows:
The source of human rights
Left: Human rights come from the government; Right: Human rights come from the creator.
Leftist: Human nature is generally good; Right: Human nature is generally bad.
Left: equality; right: prosperity.
The main role of the state
Left: promote and protect equality; right: promote and protect freedom.
Left: as large as possible; right: as small as possible.
The biggest threat to the world
Left: environmental disaster, currently global warming; right: evil; current violence from Islamists.
Main problems faced by black Americans
Left: racism; Right: Lack of fathers (Note: The proportion of black single-parent families is high, 70% of children come from single-parent families with only mothers).
How to treat illegal immigration
Left: popular guests; right: illegal immigrants.
From an economic point of view, the Democratic Party and the left tend to Keynesianism, and the Republican Party and the right tend to be liberal.In reality, it is not easy to distinguish between Democratic and Republican ideologies.
For example, the Democrats are usually called liberals and the Republicans are conservatives, but the Republicans are the ones who really advocate economic freedom.In another example, the Democratic Party claims that the Republican Party is the spokesperson of the big capitalists, but in the last two general elections, Wall Street has donated far more to the Democratic Party than the Republican Party.The Democratic Party’s hardcore ticket warehouses are from the rich and financial states on the east and west coasts.
What exactly is going on?
This is because the two parties have undergone complex evolution, and at the same time, there are many factions inside (especially the Democratic Party).Sometimes the ideology of the party follows the votes and evolves.
When the United States was founded, there was only one party, and that was the Federal Party led by the founder Hamilton. In 1790, the other two founders, Jefferson and Madison, formed the Democratic Republican Party to fight Hamilton. In 1812, the Federal Party disbanded, and the Democratic Republican Party split into the Democratic Party and the Republican Party (formerly the Whig Party).
The original Democratic Party inherited Jefferson's ideological heritage, represented the interests of southern landlords and farmers, opposed large governments and central banks, and advocated the development of agriculture, land expansion, and slavery.The Republican Party represents the interests of the northern bourgeoisie and advocates the development of industry, free markets, and the abolition of slavery.
In the first half of the 19th century, the Democratic Party was in power for a long time, maintaining a policy of slavery, driving out Indians in the west, and expanding the United States to the west coast.
In 1860, the Republican Party won the election and Lincoln became president.This is the first time the Republican Party is in power.
President Lincoln advocated the abolition of slavery, and the contradictions between North and South were irreconcilable, causing civil war.As a result, the South lost.After the war, the Democratic Party, which advocated slavery, was defeated and abandoned by the voters.Until the Great Depression of 1933, the Republican Party maintained its power for more than half a century.The Republican Party advocates a free market and the development of industrial economies such as automobiles and steel.This is also the fastest growing period of the American industrial economy, known as the Gilded Age.The United States surpassed Britain in economic aggregate during the Gilded Age and became the world's largest economic power.
Manufacturing business owners and the growing white-collar class and middle-class families are traditional supporters of the Republican Party.In the Gilded Age, the rise of trust organizations, the Republican Party was considered to represent the interests of large industrial capitalists.However, the Republican President Roosevelt was the first president to attack the trust, and was called the "trust bomber."He split up the Northern Securities controlled by Old Morgan and initiated lawsuits against more than 40 trusts including oil and tobacco.
However, the president who lives on Mount Rushmore, his ruling philosophy and iron-blooded style, caused internal struggles in the Republican Party. In 1912, Roosevelt and Taft dispersed the Republican votes, and the Democratic reformist Dr. Wilson seized the opportunity to be elected president.
Wilson is a key figure for the Democratic Party to reverse the situation and change its ideology.Wilson, a law professor, promoted the introduction of a series of laws.He launchedThe Smith-Liver Act, export agricultural technology to farmers, provide agricultural loans to landlords, and stabilize the landlords and farmers' ticket warehouses.
At the same time, he also passed the Adamson Act, which stipulates that railway workers enjoy an 8-hour work limit; he also passed the Lekton Antitrust Act, which extended antitrust to general issues such as price discrimination.These two laws helped the Democratic Party win votes from unions and workers.During Wilson's tenure, members of the American Labor Union, the Railroad Workers Association, and other "moderate" unions and the wages of workers in these industries have all increased significantly.
Wilson also passed the Keating-Owen Act to alleviate the problem of child labor; passed the XNUMXth Constitutional Amendment to establish women’s voting rights; and also promulgated the No. XNUMXth Constitutional Amendment to the Prohibition of Alcohol.These decrees helped the Democratic Party win the appreciation and support of women, feminists, and intellectuals.
Most importantly, Wilson promoted the establishment of the Federal Reserve.Opposing the central bank has always been a political proposition of the Democratic Party, but Wilson withstood internal pressure to facilitate this.The original intention of the Fed was to protect private banks. Wilson's move helped the Democratic Party win the support of financial forces and bankers.
In today's words, President Wilson pushed the Democratic Party to "break the circle" and expand the fan base from the original landlords and farmers to trade unions, workers, bankers, women, and intellectuals.The expansion and complication of the constituents of voters also began to change the Democratic Party's ideology and political views.
However, before the Great Depression, the White House was still the Republican. In 1920, the Republicans regained the presidency, creating the "roaring twenties" of economic prosperity. In 1928, the Republican candidate Hoover advocated individual liberalism, economic prosperity, and equal opportunities, and easily defeated the Democratic candidate and became president. In March 1929, the "Wall Street Journal" celebrated Hoover’s inauguration and said: "Hoover is a very dynamic business president. He will be the first business president of the United States."
However, only half a year later, the economic crisis broke out, triggering the Great Depression for many years.The Great Depression gave the Democratic Party a chance to stand up. The Democratic candidate, Roosevelt Jr., under the banner of the "New Deal" won the election with an overwhelming advantage.From a historical point of view, almost every economic collapse has benefited the Democratic election.
The Great Depression meant that the laissez-faire advocated by the Republicans went bankrupt, and the interventionism advocated by the Democrats took the stage.Roosevelt promoted the promulgation of a series of laws.Among them, the emergency banking law, rescue big banks, won the support of big bankers.The Agricultural Regulation Law, which grants subsidies to farmers, has won the support of farmers; the Social Security Law, which grants subsidies to unemployed workers, the disabled, and poor families, has won the support of the people at the bottom of the population; Support from unions and workers.
Roosevelt was a key figure in changing the history of the Democratic Party.He completely reversed the declining popularity of the Democratic Party since the Civil War.Later, Roosevelt Jr. led the United States to victory in World War II, and the Democratic Party’s approval rating reached its peak.
In 1960, the 43-year-old Democrat Kennedy won the election.Unfortunately, President Kennedy was assassinated three years later.Vice President Johnson took over the presidency.President Johnson is a staunch supporter of the New Deal, and he proposed a series of so-called "big society" bills. The core content of the "Great Society" series of bills is to protect civil rights and people's livelihood, such as environmental protection, poverty alleviation, rural construction, and the increase in education and welfare.
Since the 60s, the affirmative movement in the United States has been surging.President Johnson successfully seized the affirmative ideology and supported the affirmative movement with the "big society" series of bills. At the same time, he abolished the apartheid system and provided large amounts of subsidies to blacks, minorities, and women.This makes the blacks collectively fall to the Democratic Party and become the party's iron vote holder (99%).What is interesting is that the Democratic Party has historically been a party that advocated slavery. The Republican President Lincoln abolished slavery, but the Democratic Party Johnson succeeded in "picking the peach."
Johnson also supports equal rights for women and equal rights for consumption.When universities are required to admit students, companies recruit or promote employees, and government tenders, they should take care of ethnic minorities and women.JohnsonHelped the Democratic Party win the support of feminists, environmentalists, and consumerists.
Does the special care for blacks and women constitute anti-discrimination against whites and men?
In 1978, a white male named Buck was refused admission to a medical school for two consecutive years.The reason is that the medical school gave 16% of its admissions to black students-some black students with worse grades than Buck.Buck took the school to the Supreme Court.The Supreme Court ruled that the school’s quota system for black students is unconstitutional, but it still supports the affirmative movement.In the 90s, American colleges and universities resumed their rationality and gradually abolished the quota for blacks.Many states have abolished special care for blacks in employment, government bidding, etc.The Supreme Court’s approach is rational and supports the affirmative movement, but it cannot adopt a quantitative approach, which constitutes reverse discrimination.
Before 1860, it was the Democratic Party, and after the Civil War until the Great Depression, it was the Republican Party.From the Great Depression to the 1960s, the Democratic Party suppressed the Republican Party.Roosevelt and Johnson, these two key figures, expanded the Democratic Party’s votes to: landlords, big bankers, farmers, low-level workers, blacks and minorities, feminists, environmentalists, Keynesians, and left-wing intellectuals .
The Democratic Party is not a rigorous political party. It has a huge voter base, but its composition is complex, its interests are difficult to reconcile, and its unity is not enough.If you want to classify these ticket warehouses, you can roughly divide them into two categories: the richest people and the poorest people, or the exquisite egoists and idealists.Therefore, the Democratic Party often faces a dilemma: on the one hand, it has to represent the interests of the big bankers, the rich and the elite, on the other hand, it has to try to appease the people at the bottom.
In this way, ideological control becomes extremely important.In order to maximize the inclusion of complex supporters at the bottom, the Democratic Party, under the banner of democracy, freedom, equality, kindness, fraternity, anti-discrimination, and environmental protection, has even elevated it to the level of political correctness to ensure the stability of the vote warehouse.Many advocates are clearly leftist, and the Democratic Party has become a leftist party with bankers and wealthy people hidden.
Many people believe that the Republicans are better at economics and the Democrats are better at politics.Historically, the United States under the Republican Party had a prosperous economy and rapid wealth growth, but the gap between the rich and the poor was also rapidly widening.When the economy collapsed, the Democratic Party took over the United States and promoted the affirmative movement and social welfare construction.However, the economic recession and debt crisis triggered by interventionism and welfarism caused the Democratic Party to lose power.
From 1965 to 1969, the fiscal expenditure of the US federal government increased by a total of 55%, an annual increase of 11%, while the previous three years' annual expenditure increased by only 2%.Among them, in the allocation of Johnson's "Great Society" plan, the total of the three funds for health, education, and depressed area development increased from 1965 billion US dollars in the 81 fiscal year to 1966 billion US dollars in 114.
The fiscal expansion of Johnson's "big society" was the direct cause of the stagflation crisis in the 70s.The high deficit and economic recession caused the Democratic Party to lose control of the White House, and the Republican Nixon won the election.However, Nixon encountered the "Watergate Incident" on his way to the ranks of great presidents.Throughout the 70s after Nixon, the United States suffered an unprecedented stagflation crisis.Keynesianism fell to the altar, and the big government interventionism and welfarism advocated by the Democratic Party were defeated.
The social equality that started in the 60s made the Democratic Party, and the neoliberalism that started in the 70s made the Republican Party.In the end, the Republicans and neoliberals that dealt with the stagflation crisis won the votes.
In 1980, Republican Reagan entered the White House. He and Fed Chairman Volcker helped the United States get out of the crisis of stagflation and started a business cycle that lasted for decades.Reagan helped the Republicans fight a turnaround and reversed the decline of public opinion since the Great Depression.
Reagan was considered a representative of Republican ideology.During the general election, Reagan clearly opposed Keynesianism and government interventionism, advocated supply economics, and advocated liberalism and tax reduction policies.Reagan used a large number of liberal economists to promote reforms, reduce intervention, reduce market access, and support information technology and investment banks.Compared with the Democratic Party, the Republican Party’s ideology is weak, but its economic policies are very effective.
From 1983 to 2007, the United States ushered in continued prosperity. The financial industry developed rapidly, information technology was in the ascendant, large-scale multinational corporations were on the rise, and economic globalization was rapid.The economic prosperity of this period must be related to the Republican Party, although Democrat Clinton also made outstanding achievements in economic construction in the 90s.
In the 21st century, let’s look at the votes of the Republicans and Democrats.
The Republican Party’s votes are more pure than those of the Democratic Party. In addition to traditional manufacturing business owners, local SME owners, blue-collar workers, white people, corporate white-collar workers, and the expanding urban middle class, there are also a small number of bankers.
After the 70s, the Democratic Party did not do nothing.The Democrats controlled Congress until 1995.This is because the Democratic Party has accumulated strong public support in the affirmative movement.The political power of Congress is stronger than that of the White House.At this time, the Democratic Party’s ticket warehouse has undergone some changes. In addition to the original ticket warehouse, a large number of investment bankers, such as brokerages and investment bank elites, have been added, and business owners, scientists, engineers, and others in the fields of information technology and new energy have been added. There are university intellectuals.Some investment banks and information companies have become large multinational corporations, such as Microsoft Corporation. This force has profoundly affected the foreign policy of the Democratic Party.
It’s worth mentioning that the Internet technology oligarchs, Such as Facebook co-founder Dustin Moskowitz, Twitter co-founder Evan Williams, former eBay president Jeff Skoll, Zynga founder Mark Pincus, Netflix CEO Reid · Hastings is a supporter of Biden and the Democratic Party.
Both Trump and Biden have invested huge amounts of advertisements on social networking sites. How these advertisements are governed by algorithms and how the speeches of the two parties are pushed by big data may affect the election.In this regard, Biden and the Democratic Party have more advantages.
When the financial crisis broke out in 2008, the Republican Party encountered Waterloo again.The Democrats and Keynesians blamed the Republicans for the outbreak of the economic crisis.At the same time, the financial crisis triggered a populist movement, and populists demanded welfare and severely punished financiers.
In the 2008 election, the Democrat Obama won the first prize.
Why is it Obama?
At that time, the Democratic Party’s campaign strategy was too good. American voters were tired of politicians running the train, and longed for a complete “revolution” from a young man who had nothing to do with big capitalists.And Obama satisfied all the desires of voters.Obama was born in a poor family, with a clean foundation, young and capable, full of vigor, and excellent speech talent.Most importantly, he is still a black man.
Obama took the stage under the banner of reform. He promised voters that 95% of the people would be taxed and another 5% of the rich would be taxed.He also promised to implement universal medical insurance and strictly supervise financial enterprises.
The majority of voters at the bottom have high hopes for Obama, and the Democratic Party's solid public opinion foundation has played a role. In the 2008 election, Obama’s fundraising record showed that 65% of his total came from small donations of less than $200, while his opponent, Republican McCain, had only 33%.
However, 8 years later, voters found that their $200 political investment was in vain.Facts have proved that Obama's best ability is to speak.If there is a second specialty, it is spending money.The National Medical Insurance was abandoned halfway, and the financial supervision bill including Volcker's Law was revised beyond recognition.The debt scale of the US government has expanded rapidly.
In 2016, American voters couldn't bear it and chose Trump, the Republican candidate least like the president.
Why were the Democrats and Hillary Clinton abandoned by voters?
On the surface, the responsibility lies with Obama.But in fact, Obama is powerless to change.This is determined by the nature of the Democratic Party.
The Democratic Party’s vote includes “vulnerable groups” and the lower-class people.Sanders, the Democratic leftist, represents the interests of this group.However, the other hardcore Democrats are Wall Street, financial companies, multinational corporations and urban elites.Their interest spokesperson is the Democratic Party establishment Hillary Clinton.
After the financial crisis, the interests of the two ticket warehouses clashed, and the people at the bottom demanded severe punishment of financial companies.Obama has been a peacemaker for eight years and won a Nobel Peace Prize, but he missed the best time for reform. In the 2016 general election, the Democratic Party was facing a split situation. In order to keep the votes on Wall Street, the traditional Democratic forces resolutely abandoned Sanders and let the establishment Clinton face the Republican Trump.
The Democratic Party’s traditional iron plate, rich eastern states, financial states and western California, has won Clinton many votes.However, in key swing states, Hillary was counterattacked by Trump.Most of the swing states are traditional industrial states and southern states in the Great Lakes region. Many of them are low-level voters. They hate the face of an established politician like Hillary Clinton.
In contrast, the Republican Party’s strategy for this election was extremely correct.The Republican Party also has establishments and representatives of Wall Street.but,The voter composition of the Republican Party is more pure.The Republican Party’s hard-core ticket warehouse is white Americans, workers and middle-class families.This group of people does not have so much conflict with financiers in terms of ideology or interests.As a result, the Republican Party decisively turned around in 2016 and strategically stood on the side of the reformists and supported Trump in winning the swing state.
Here, let’s take a look again. Who caused the 2008 financial crisis?
Keynesians such as Stiglitz shifted the blame to the Republican Party and financial liberalization.But in fact, this financial crisis is the result of interventionism and is directly related to the government's financial policy and the Federal Reserve's monetary policy.The question is, is it the Democratic Party or the Republican Party?
It is generally believed that the Fed is the first person responsible for this crisis, mainly "dollar tsar" Greenspan.The second responsible person is the Bush Jr. administration's support for the US family home purchase plan.The chief culprit of the crisis is none other than laissez-faire-the failed Republican policy.
However, the truth is not that simple.Sebastian Mallaby pointed out in his famous "Biography of Greenspan" that after "Black Friday" in 1987, Greenspan gave up his liberal beliefs, and Friedman and Volcker back then Advocated monetary policy .Greenspan implemented a lasting very low interest rate policy in 2001, which just shows that the Fed's intervention in the market caused the crisis.
In addition, the joint efforts of Greenspan and President Clinton, the Democrat, broke the 66-year history of separate financial operations in the United States. In 1999, the Clinton administration submitted the Green Paper on Regulatory Reform, which promoted the introduction of the Financial Services Modernization Act and ushered in the era of mixed financial industry in the United States.
Who created the subprime mortgage crisis?
In order to protect the residency rights of disadvantaged groups, the “Community Reinvestment Act” approved by President Carter in 1977 and revised by President Clinton in the 1990s required Freddie Mac and Fannie to lower the threshold of loans for low- and middle-income earners, and even stipulate that Loan lines for low-income people. In 2005, the Republican Party moved in Congress to standardize the loan standards for the "two houses", but the Democratic Party opposed it.
Is the Republican Party responsible?
Of course there is responsibility.The Bush administration did not adhere to liberal ideas. His senior adviser Karl Rove recruited a group of Keynesians as his staff.Bush Jr. appointed Keynesian Bernanke as Chairman of the Federal Reserve, and former Goldman Sachs President Paulson as Treasury Secretary.When Lehman went bankrupt, the outgoing Bush Jr reminded Bernanke and Paulson that they should not be overly rescued.The Republican Party clearly declared in its 2008 campaign platform: "We do not support the government's rescue of private institutions." However, these two "big saviors" used taxpayers' money to rescue big banks, financial giants, multinational companies, and financial markets. Disastrous moral hazard and debt risk.
This year's election was once confusing.During Trump's four years in power, the U.S. economy emerged from deflation and the employment rate was close to full employment.However, the new crown epidemic has hit the US economy severely.Many people think that Trump will repeat the Republican Party's mistake of "losing the election due to economic crisis."
Once the welfare gate was opened, it was hard to get over the water, the Republican PartysameGo with the flow.For ordinary peopleSaid, as long as you give me money, I care if you are a "donkey" or an "elephant."Now any political party that advocates cuts in welfare cannot win the election.The exchange of votes for welfare has become a routine operation of the two parties.Trump created a huge amount of government debt and asset bubbles in the United States.
Republicans in consciousnessThe morphological construction can be described as a mess. The Bush administration has exhausted the conservativeness of the liberal era.Trend of Thought.In the past few decades, rightist theory, especially free market theory, has flaws. They have not established a convincing theory of "the road to prosperity and peace."
So many people can't distinguish right from right and right, and even don't know who is their spokesperson and who is the spokesperson of Wall Street.
The Republican Party also has an establishment, which also represents the interests of some financiers.For example, the Mellon Bank family is a super donor to the Republican Party, and his heirs donated $1000 million to Trump.Trump and the Republican Party are backed by dozens of super rich people.However, compared with the Democratic Party, the financial circle of friends of the Republican Party and Trump is too small.
Let’s look at a set of data. In 2016, Wall Street brokers and investment banks donated as much as US$8800 million to Hillary Clinton, while Trump only had US$2080 million, a four-fold difference. In 2020, this gap will further widen.As of September, Wall Street had donated $9 million to Biden and only $5110 million to Trump, a five-fold difference.
Another set of data shows that since the Reagan administration, the number of officials from Wall Street has gradually increased. By the time Clinton reached the peak of his second term, more than 50% of the senior officials came from Wall Street. After the "Glass-Steagall Act" was repealed, then Treasury Secretary Rubin became the co-president of Citibank a month after leaving his post, with an annual salary of $1500 million and 150 million stocks.The Trump administration ousted most of the senior officials from Wall Street, and only one remained, and that was Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin from Goldman Sachs.
We often see that Buffett,Soros,Bill Gates,Penny Pritzker, Thomas Steyer, Steven Spielberg, Barry Diller, LeBron James and many other big names are all hard-core supporters of the Democratic Party and Biden.
On the issue of "political cash", the two parties in the United States are also gambling.To ensure that the election is not controlled by wealthy groups and union groups, Congress introduced the Smith-Connery Act in 1943, prohibiting unions from making donations to election candidates in the name of the organization. The Federal Election Act of 1972 stipulates that each person cannot contribute more than $1000 to a candidate in each election.The contribution of a "political action committee" shall not exceed US$5000; the donation that an individual can fund elections in a year shall not exceed US$2.5.This amount will fluctuate with inflation.
However, the Political Action Committee will still take advantage of the loopholes and spend money to advertise issues for its candidates.This is political "soft money". During the George W. Bush administration in 2002, Republicans promoted the introduction of the "Bipartisan Electoral Reform Act" stipulating that labor unions, companies, and other civil organizations are not allowed to be on television and broadcast within one month before the primary election and two months before the general election. The "issue advertisement" is aimed at eliminating the influence of "soft money" on the election.
However, the 2010 US Supreme Court ruled that US companies can invest in campaign funds without restrictions.This has greatly increased the influence of the Super Political Action Committee on the election.In this election, in order to help Biden win the crucial state of Florida, basketball superstars James, Jordan, along with businessman Michael Bloomberg and other celebrities, paid about 2700 million US dollars in court fines, leaving up to 13000 felon Eligible to vote.
Therefore, the Democratic Party establishment has become a firm defender of traditional forces, and it is impossible for them to initiate real reforms.As Biden declared, if he is elected, he will maintain the order of the past.Of course, the Republican Party is not just like a bright snow, but he is easy to turn around and has already turned around.
In this general election, the Democratic Party still gave up the ultra-left Sanders and supported Biden, an older politician, to run for the election.Like last time supporting Hillary Clinton, the Democrats dare not give up the iron plate of Wall Street.As a result, the Democratic Party’s election was not much different from 2016.
The Democratic Party is too big, too complicated, and too many conflicts of interest. The only way to win over voters is to instill a strong ideology to maximize consensus.The Democratic Party’s claims are fascinating and attractive. They advocate freedom, equality, democracy, fraternity, kindness, and justice, oppose racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and immigration discrimination, protect vulnerable groups such as the elderly, the weak, sick, and disabled, and support environmentalism. And new energy technology.
For example, to "protect the disadvantaged," the Democrat Roosevelt Jr. introduced the first minimum wage bill in American history in 1938.The Republicans opposed the minimum wage law.In the era of Bush Jr., the Republican Party has always disagreed with the Democratic Party’s proposal to increase the minimum wage from $5.15 to $7.25 per hour. In 2006, the Democrats won the midterm elections, leading the House of Representatives to pass quicklyA bill to raise the minimum wage.However, the Republican-controlled Senate disagreed and proposed to cut taxes for small businesses by $83 billion, otherwise the bill would not be approved.The Democratic Party believes that tax cuts for enterprises protect enterprises, not disadvantaged groups, and cut the tax cuts to 48 billion.So this bill was finally passed.
With this, the Democratic Party "upped on the platform" and criticized the Republican Party as "the spokesperson of the capitalists."But in fact, economists have long proved that the minimum wage bill does not help workers increase employment.If the minimum wage is too high, it will reduce the number of companies employed and increase the unemployment rate of workers, especially young and unskilled workers. The "Minimum Wage Research Committee" survey shows that a 10% increase in the minimum wage will lead to a 1% to 3% increase in the unemployment rate of young unskilled workers.Conversely, tax cuts for enterprises and allow more freedom to return to the free market will help increase the efficiency of enterprises and increase the employment rate of workers.
In fact, the elites of the Democratic Party are very clear about this, but they cannot rationalize the problem. Only by ideologically or even solidifying it into political correctness can they unite the voters to the greatest extent possible and attack political opponents.
In the book "The Details of Democracy", Professor Liu Yu summarized the political correctness of the United States (Politically Correct) as "four basic principles": you cannot offend minorities; you cannot offend women; you cannot offend homosexuality; you cannot offend different beliefs or Holders of political opinions .
Under political correctness, the Democratic Party has idealists, welfare populists, exquisite egoists, and a group of "people behind the square."
These four basic principles have deeply penetrated the American intellectual elite.
A survey in 2005 showed that 72% of teachers in American colleges and universities were “left-wing liberals” and 15% were “right-wing conservatives”.In terms of party affiliation, 50% of teachers support the Democratic Party and 11% support the Republican Party.This imbalance is particularly pronounced in first-class universities: 87% tend to be left-wing freedom, and 13% are right-wing conservative.Moreover, the changes in the power of the left and right wings are increasingly tilting to the left. In the 1984 survey, only 39% of college teachers were left-wing liberals.
Under the political correctness of the United States, it takes enough courage to be a rightist. "In American intellectual circles, especially in colleges and universities, it is very fashionable to be a leftist. To be a rightist requires real courage. The situation of the left and right forces on the campus of American colleges and universities: the left wing is arrogant, the right is downcast. "
The intellectuals in the American ivory tower live in an ideal world. They hide a virgin heart, a love of love, and extreme egalitarianism, but they lack a sense of reason and a view of right and wrong.The more he accepts the reality, the more rational intellectuals he gains, and the more he stays away from the American left.According to the survey, 81% of the faculty in the American College of Humanities are liberal leftists, 75% in the social sciences, 51% in the engineering school, and 49% in the business school.It can be seen that natural science and economics bring more rational light to mankind.
Another example is the wall repair event.In the past few decades, illegal immigrants from Mexico have flocked to the United States. At the end of the 70s, Mexico had only 5 illegal immigrants infiltrating the United States a year. In the 80s, this figure reached 20. In the 90s, the average annual illegal immigrants reached 50.
In 2005, the Bush administration passed the Anti-Illegal Immigration Act and decided to build a 698-mile “separation wall” along the US-Mexico border.The Democratic Party opposed, criticized the Republican Party for racial discrimination, and demanded more tolerance for illegal immigrants.The matter was put on hold.During the Bush administration, there was Labor Day on May 70st. Thousands of illegal immigrants marched in more than XNUMX cities in the United States.Ironically, they held up the Mexican flag and demanded that the US government protect their legal labor rights.
Today, Mexican illegal immigrants have exceeded 1000 million in the United States. Some people have settled, worked and given birth in the United States for a long time.The Trump administration started repairing the wall again, and the Democratic Party denounced it with racial discrimination.Therefore, in the eyes of American minorities and intellectuals, the Republican Party is a conservative party that tends to discriminate against immigrants.
The Democratic Party supports illegal immigration, in fact, it has exquisite interests.Minorities are the Democratic Party’s votes. If there are more blacks, more immigrants, and more illegal immigrants, the greater the Democratic Party’s vote base.The fertility rate of blacks and minorities is generally higher than that of whites. If this trend continues, the Democratic Party will have more obvious advantages in the general election.Similarly, the Democratic Party implements a high welfare policy to win votes for welfare populism, which is also a political demand.
Rightists in the United States remind that rationality is more important than political correctness and moral high ground.The status of illegal immigrants is illegal; welfare populism leads to high debts and reduces economic efficiency; excessive subsidies to blacks have led to the emergence of a large number of single-parent black families, triggering various social problems; extreme environmentalism may cause ecological disasters.However, rational people in this world are a minority after all, and the Republican Party has suffered this loss.The voices of the Republican Party and the American right have become weaker under the suppression of political correctness.
This political correctness even suppresses freedom of speech.In general election polls, the Democratic Party often leads the Republican Party.In addition to the large base of Democratic voters, Republican supporters are restricted by political correctness and dare not speak out, dare not openly support, and can only vote silently.
For example, in this year's black movement, university professors expressed some rational voices, but they were reported by students and forced to be laid off.Newspaper editors condemned black beating, smashing, and looting, and they were also labelled racial discrimination.Kneeling became politically correct, and became a political show for Biden and the Democratic Party.
However, in a constitutional country, there is no permanent political correctness.Free speech will eventually pierce the false mask of moral kidnapping.This is the right granted by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Leo Strauss, the German-American philosopher directly pointed out the fundamental problems of the Democratic Party.He believes that the "freedom" in modern discourse is just used to blur the boundaries between right and wrong, justice and evil; while the "democracy" in modern discourse—by transforming a quality problem into a quantitative problem—for this Relativism provides technical feasibility .Strauss hated liberalism being abused by the Democratic Party. He also criticized traditional liberalism and praised American constitutional democracy.
When he was alive, the Strauss school was "the most isolated, marginal, least recognized and even the most excluded school."However, after his death, neoliberalism rose, and Strauss became the "godfather of the Republican revolution" and the "father of neoconservatism". Many of his students became officials and staff of the Reagan and Bush administrations.
Speaking of fundamentally, the ideological differences between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party of the United States are the differences in the concepts of democracy, freedom, equality, and justice.
Look at democracy first.
The democracy advocated by the Democratic Party is Athenian democracy, which means that the majority has the final say.In ancient Athens, Socrates defied religion and was executed by democratic voting.Since then, European elites have always had a grudge against democracy and have even more respected freedom.The French Revolution allowed people to see the tyranny of the majority caused by democracy.
It is American constitutional democracy that truly restores the reputation and value of democracy.Different from Athenian democracy, constitutional democracy is a democracy under the constraints of constitutionalism.Constitutionalism reflects not the will of the majority of people, but truth, or "rational spirit."The protection of the right to life, freedom of speech, and private property stipulated by the U.S. Constitution cannot be deprived of because of the majority vote.For example, during a stock market crash, most people lose money, and a few make money. They cannot vote through the majority to require transaction rollbacks, or deprive the few who make money of their wealth.
The electoral college system is constitutional democracy, not Athenian democracy.This system is in line with the federal system of the United States and can prevent the most populous states from controlling the White House and Congress and preventing the democratic election of Hitler.
Let's look at freedom and equality.
The Democrats and Republicans disagree on who is the goal and who is the means.Both parties support "born equal."This is the natural human rights, that is, people’s right to life is equal, and their personality is equal.
However, the Republican Party advocates equality of opportunity, opposes equality of results, and aims at freedom.The Democratic Party’s understanding of equality is, more precisely, equality. The Democratic Party takes equality as its goal and allows equality of opportunity, sacrifice of some freedoms, and even the possibility of amending the law in order to achieve the goal of equality of results.The freedom advocated by the Republican Party is freedom under constitutional government, and believes that only freedom under constitutional government has real freedom.
Right and wrong?Milton Friedman made it clear in one sentence: "A society that puts equality above freedom will eventually neither receive equality nor freedom. And a society that puts freedom above equality Although there is no equality, it will be closer to equality than any other system that has existed."
The Republican Party supports procedural justice, and the Democratic Party supports compensatory justice.Procedural justice is actually equal opportunities, and the result depends on individual ability.Compensatory justice is equal results and unequal opportunities.When the Democrat Johnson promoted the equal rights movement, black people had been discriminated against for a century, with a weak foundation and a low starting point, so they should move the starting line ten meters forward.The question is, how do you identify whether the ancestors of the Chinese, Asians, and Indians are doing well, and whether they need to be taken care of.What's more terrible is that compensatory justice is actually a family theory, which encourages laziness and creates new injustices.From the Barker case, the U.S. Supreme Court clearly rejected the Democratic Party’s compensatory justice.
Therefore, with regard to justice, the American political philosopher John Rawls stated the essence in "A Theory of Justice": only justice under an unknown identity is true justice.In other words, regardless of birth, they are treated equally.
The vague understanding of freedom, equality, democracy and justice is the problem of ideology.The Democratic Party is keen to muddy the water so that it can unite voters with complex composition to the maximum.
Ann Kurt revealed this more directly than Strauss.She is a "Miss America", she could have lived by her looks, but she had to rely on her talent.Kurt once wrote five books that attacked the Democratic Party frantically and appeared on the cover of Time Magazine.In her column, she scolded the Democratic Party: "The main voters of the Democratic Party are all fat people who eat soft food."
Perhaps Kurt's extreme remarks still cannot awaken those who pretend to be asleep, because welfare can be addictive.American columnist Dennis Prager criticized: "Whether it is drug addiction, alcohol addiction, gambling addiction, sex addiction, or smoking addiction, as long as you catch it, it is difficult to quit. However, there is another addiction that is more difficult to quit. , That is welfare addiction, that is, people's addiction to what they get for nothing. " He scolded the Democratic Party as "drug dealers" and turned Americans into "addicts."
Professor Liu Yu said it well: "I always feel that the difference between demagogues and thinkers is that demagogues are always keen to seize the moral commanding heights, while thinkers are always keen to point out the traps under the moral commanding heights. So inciting family chiefs It is in the feast of words that intertwined, and thinkers are always worried about who will pay for the feast.