[Registered Nurse's Column] How to effectively improve swallowing difficulties for the elderly?

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澳洲护士(图片来源:Piqsels)分享快乐生活除了提供适合大多数长者使用的自主管理模式以外,也提供了个案管理模式可以选择。个案管理模式秉承快乐生活的一贯宗旨,...

澳洲护士,长者护理
澳洲护士(图片来源:Piqsels)

                                    快乐生活除了提供适合大多数长者使用的自主管理模式以外,也提供了个案管理模式可以选择。个案管理模式秉承快乐生活的一贯宗旨,坚持以更低的管理费率,更多的选择权利,帮助长者最大程度使用居家养老津贴。在快乐生活,个案管理模式同样不收取长者额外的附加费用和隐藏费用,所有安排的服务项目内容以及服务提供人员都是基于长者的个人要求和护理需求来考虑的。

In addition, the members of the Happy Life case manager team are all registered nurses in Australia, and they have many years of experience in the aged care industry working in elderly care institutions. They have solved a large number of difficult problems and can make the most suitable treatment according to the actual situation and specific requirements of the elderly.When the elderly have medical-related questions, the case manager of Happy Life can also give accurate answers based on professional background knowledge.
Happy life encourages the elderly to try the self-management model with lower rates. However, when the elderly’s personal conditions, including their physical, mental, and living conditions, have undergone major changes, the need for nursing care has increased significantly, requiring more types and For complex service items, when you are unwilling or unable to communicate directly with too many nursing staff, you can consider switching to a case management model.The case manager of Happy Life can speak Mandarin, Cantonese, and English fluently, and communicate and cooperate with elders of different cultural background fluently.
快乐生活个案经理团队充分发挥自身的专业优势,开设了注册护士专栏,就长者朋友们在日常生活中较为关心的话题进行分析和讲解,让大家可以学习到更多有用的相关知识,进一步提高居家养老生活的质量。在本期专栏中,将向读者朋友们介绍针对长者吞咽困难情况的护理和训练。
随着长者的年龄增长,各类疾病的发病率逐渐增高,加上生理功能退化,容易导致吞咽困难的情况发生。很多长者都在承受吞咽的痛苦,那么到底应该怎么办呢?

其实,存在吞咽困难的人,一部分是高龄长者,随着身体机能下降,出现吞咽困难的现象;另有一部分则是患有脑血管疾病、抑郁症、脑退化症、或者牙齿咀嚼功能障碍等的长者。
当长者出现吞咽困难时,一定要去做检查,排除其他的病症,确定情况的严重程度,获得在饮食上的建议,以及相应康复训练的指导等。
针对吞咽困难长者的护理和训练,主要有以下方法:

1.调整吞咽方式

通过改变姿势来控制食物的流向。低头吞咽,可以保护气管通道,,避免食物或者液体太快流入咽喉,让进食更加安全。如果长者卧床,则需要摇高床头90度进食。

2.调整进食速度

小口吞咽,可以减少食物在咽部的残留量。每一口都多吞咽几次,吞完以后清喉咙,确保吞咽干净,避免食物残留。如果使用吸管容易呛到,可以改用汤匙或者斜口杯,控制进食的量。

3.调整食物质地

增加液体的浓稠度。可以在水或者汤里加入增稠剂,变得浓稠一点,降低液体的流速,避免太快流入呼吸道。但也不要吃太黏稠或者太硬的食物,避免卡在咽喉。

4.咽部吞咽运动

使用吸管进行喉部上抬运动,可以帮助喉部上提,关闭呼吸道。将吸管的一端含在口中,用手指盖住吸管的另一端,用力吸,感觉喉结用力上抬到最高处,维持5秒,重复8次。

5.假声练习运动

发“一”的声音,慢慢提高音调,音调升到越高越好,直到最高音,维持高音5秒,重复8次。

6.撑住舌头运动

可以增加舌根和咽部肌肉的力量,减少食物残留。将舌头前伸,牙齿轻咬舌尖,吞咽口水,舌尖仍要维持在外面,重复8次。

本文作者:Evelyn Kong(注册护士)

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