Australia – Election of WTO Director-General to respond to COVID-XNUMX as a top priority – BBC News

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尼日利亚经济学家当选世界贸易组织(WTO)总干事,在国际贸易史上留下两个“第一”:世贸组织第一位非洲裔总干事,也是第一位女性担任该职。

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  <img src="https://cdn.china.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/16065458/20210215195457-602ad1913be91.png" alt="Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala " class="Img__Image-s1jp862x-0 cFrwbo" />BBC尼日利亚经济学家恩戈齐·奥孔约-伊维拉(Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala)出任WTO总干事<p class="Subheading-s1hcgie-0 dGBnhO">她是世界贸易历史上首位执掌这个要职的非洲裔女性</p><ul class="idt-cloud-super-figures FigureList-yjhr8u-0 dUzJAX"><li class="FigureList__Figure-yjhr8u-1 kBgHrk"><strong class="SuperFigureList__Impact-s1729dmb-0 fILgHV">25年</strong>世界银行(World Bank)工作经验,负责掌控的项目金额达810亿美元</p></li></ul><ul class="idt-cloud-normal-figures FigureList-yjhr8u-0 dUzJAX"><li class="FigureList__Figure-yjhr8u-1 kBgHrk"><p><strong class="RegularFigureList__Impact-n4skma-0 njWsc">两次出任</strong>尼日利亚财政部长</p></li><li class="FigureList__Figure-yjhr8u-1 kBgHrk"><p><strong class="RegularFigureList__Impact-n4skma-0 njWsc">拥有10个</strong>专业博士学位之外的荣誉学位</p></li><li class="FigureList__Figure-yjhr8u-1 kBgHrk"><p><strong class="RegularFigureList__Impact-n4skma-0 njWsc">数百万</strong>她担任国际疫苗联盟(Gavi)董事会主席期间,全球数百万儿童获疫苗接种</p></li><li class="FigureList__Figure-yjhr8u-1 kBgHrk"><p><strong class="RegularFigureList__Impact-n4skma-0 njWsc">150万</strong>推特关注者</p></li></ul>来源:BBC, 《卫报》<p dir="ltr" class="bbc-16vrf3f-Paragraph-StyledParagraph e1cc2ql70">尼日利亚经济学家恩戈齐·奥孔约-伊维拉(Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, 又译奥孔乔-伊韦阿拉)当选世界贸易组织(WTO),结束了世贸组织最高岗位持续了半年的“真空”状态。</p><p dir="ltr" class="bbc-16vrf3f-Paragraph-StyledParagraph e1cc2ql70">奥孔约-伊维拉出任该职,在国际贸易史上留下两个“第一”:世贸组织第一位非洲裔总干事,也是第一位女性担任该职。她将于3月1日正式就职,任期于2025年8月31日结束。</p><p dir="ltr" class="bbc-16vrf3f-Paragraph-StyledParagraph e1cc2ql70">奥孔约-伊维拉不是贸易事务专家,但明言自己对WTO这个国际贸易监管机构有“清楚的认识”。</p><p dir="ltr" class="bbc-16vrf3f-Paragraph-StyledParagraph e1cc2ql70">她表示,自己上任后当务之急是与WTO成员国一起应对新冠疫情对全球经济和公共医疗保健造成的冲击。</p><p dir="ltr" class="bbc-16vrf3f-Paragraph-StyledParagraph e1cc2ql70">“我们要从COVID-19大流行造成的灾难中全面、迅速地恢复,一个强大的WTO至关重要。我期待与成员国一同制定和实施重振全球经济发展所需的政策方案。”</p><p dir="ltr" class="bbc-16vrf3f-Paragraph-StyledParagraph e1cc2ql70">她承认WTO面临诸多挑战,但强调说,“我们可以共同努力,使WTO变得更强大、更敏捷、更适应当今现实”。 </p><ul role="list" class="bbc-1chkjxc-BulletedList e1drcs2w1"><li role="listitem" class="bbc-chb3zw-BulletedListItem e1drcs2w0">世贸总干事任命添变数:美国反对任命前尼日利亚财长</li><li role="listitem" class="bbc-chb3zw-BulletedListItem e1drcs2w0">世贸组织总干事谈中美贸易战:后果严重</li></ul><img alt="Empty WTO chair" src="https://cdn.china.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/16065459/20210215195459-602ad19358767.jpg" width="976" class="bbc-1suxhxy-StyledImg e1enwo3v0" /><p role="text" class="bbc-iif8qe-Copyright etq3yw90">图像来源,Getty Images</p><p dir="ltr" class="bbc-16vrf3f-Paragraph-StyledParagraph e1cc2ql70">奥孔约-伊维拉毕业于美国的大学,曾两次担任尼日利亚财政部长,并短暂担任过尼日利亚外交部长,参选WTO总干事职务时担任国际疫苗联盟(Gavi)的董事会主席。</p><p dir="ltr" class="bbc-16vrf3f-Paragraph-StyledParagraph e1cc2ql70">她2019年加入美国国籍,职业生涯的大部分时间是在世界银行(World Bank)担任经济学家,最终升任常务副行长一职,基本算是该机构的二号人物,离行长职务仅一步之遥。</p><p dir="ltr" class="bbc-16vrf3f-Paragraph-StyledParagraph e1cc2ql70">和WTO总干事职务的其他候选人不同,奥孔约-伊维拉是发展经济学家,此前的职业生涯中与贸易政策细节打交道的经历不多,但作为尼日利亚财政部长、世界银行经济学家、副行长和国际疫苗联盟主席,她经常要处理国际贸易事务。</p><p dir="ltr" class="bbc-16vrf3f-Paragraph-StyledParagraph e1cc2ql70">她说,贸易在她看来“是一项使命,一种激情”;通过贸易可以让无数人脱贫,让落后国家得到发展。</p><p dir="ltr" class="bbc-16vrf3f-Paragraph-StyledParagraph e1cc2ql70">世贸组织第六任总干事阿泽维多于2020年8月31日离任,提前一年结束任期。继任遴选程序于2020年6月8日启动,共有8位候选人获得正式提名。</p><ul role="list" class="bbc-1chkjxc-BulletedList e1drcs2w1"><li role="listitem" class="bbc-chb3zw-BulletedListItem e1drcs2w0">WTO称美国对中国加征关税违反贸易规则 但裁决效力几乎为零</li><li role="listitem" class="bbc-chb3zw-BulletedListItem e1drcs2w0">中美冲突牵连WTO改革,G20峰会亟待解决</li><li role="listitem" class="bbc-chb3zw-BulletedListItem e1drcs2w0">中美夹击 国际经贸秩序面临“世纪挑战”</li></ul><img alt="恩戈齐·奥孔约-伊维拉(左)和俞明希(右)" src="https://cdn.china.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/16065500/20210215195500-602ad19426048.jpg" width="976" class="bbc-1suxhxy-StyledImg e1enwo3v0" /><p role="text" class="bbc-iif8qe-Copyright etq3yw90">图像来源,Reuters/WTO

Ngozi Okonyo-Ivira (left) and Yu Mingxi (right) are both candidates for WTO Director-General.

"Mission and Passion"

In early October of the same year, David Walker, Chairman of the WTO General Council, announced that after two rounds of consultations, the members decided that the new director-general would be the Nigerian candidate Ngozi Okonyo Ivira and the South Korean candidate Yu Myung Hee. (Yoo Myung-hee, also translated as Liu Mingxi) It was born between the two.

The administration of former U.S. President Trump has firmly opposed Okonyo-Ivira’s appointment as WTO Director-General, but she has the support of almost all WTO members.

After the new US President Biden took office, he announced on February 2 that he "strongly supported" the Nigerian candidate.

Yu Mingxi announced his withdrawal from the competition on the same day.At the time, she was the head of the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy of Korea.

Like Okonyo-Ivira, Yu Mingxi also graduated from an American university, but she is a trade expert and spends most of her career in the field of international trade.

Yu Mingxi said that the year of her birth coincided with South Korea's accession to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which is a key factor in determining how the WTO operates.She herself began to engage in trade-related work when the WTO was established in 1995.

During this period, she participated in some key trade negotiations with South Korea, including negotiations with China and the United States.

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