From the perspective of modern people, Shang Yang is the backbone of the nation. Although he is dead, the system he has shaped has far-reaching influence and is a tragic hero.
01 “背锅侠”Shang Yang
In fact, they did not figure out a problem. "Qin" is not a new dynasty with only 15 years, but an ancient country with a history of several hundred years. Even from the Shang Yang Reform, Qin has been a feudal country for more than 150 years.
Here we do not entangle the concept of "feudalism". From the experience of later dynasties, this kind of small peasant economy has a life cycle:
In the early days of the dynasty, there were fewer people and more land. Under the dual blessings of demographic dividend and centralization dividend, "governance" and "prosperity" were formed;
At the end of the dynasty, crowded and narrow, both the demographic dividend and the centralization dividend disappeared, and chaos and turmoil began.
How long is this cycle?An average of 200 years or so, if the ruler is tossing about it again, it will have to gg ahead.
A counter-intuitive fact is that the population of the Warring States Period did not decrease significantly because of the war, but increased steadily.
Why is this so?China's internal merger war is basically a contest between the military machines of various countries. Population is a strategic resource, and all countries will surely implement policies to promote population growth.
What really caused the extinction of a large number of people was the great collapse at the end of the dynasty.In order to compete for the limited land, the surplus population will slaughter, and then start a new round of life cycle.
Specifically for Qin, due to the long-term existence of granting land with merit, land resources are relatively tight. During the course of the war with the six countries, it can also be relieved by plundering land from other countries.
After the extermination of the six countries, in order to stabilize the rule, the original land relations of the six countries can only be recognized. However, the six countries have already achieved privatization economically, and the contradiction between land and population is no worse than that of Qin.
This can also explain why Qin Shihuang has been expanding externally and his personal ambitions are of little importance. Instead, he will collapse internally if he does not expand new territory.
Qin II’s death was mainly due to the arrival of the dynasty’s life cycle. Qin Shihuang suddenly died and Qin II became more vigorous, and stepped on the accelerator severely. It would be too ideal to count this pot on Shang Yang’s body more than a hundred years ago. Ism.
So, is Shang Yang a great good man who liberated the vast number of slaves at the expense of martyrdom in order to reform the law as shaped by Daqin fans?
It turns out that he was thinking too much. Shang Yang was originally the son of Weiguo. He was a standard carnivore under the uncle Wei Guoxiang. He was certainly not a great internationalist spirit when he went to Qin, but because he was not in Wei. Reused.
With the support of Qin Xiaogong, Shang Yang began to make reforms with the aim of enriching the country and strengthening the army, but these methods were too quick for quick success.
For example, forcibly dismantling large families to expand the sources of finances, taxes and military service; idlers who do not do business properly will be punished as servants and servants. Only by working hard every day 996 can they regain “freedom”.
In order to cooperate with the implementation of these policies, Shang Yang instituted severe penalties.
At that time, the prince was young and frivolous to break the law. In order to establish prestige, Shang Yang punished the prince’s master, Gongziqian and Gongsun Jia, and Gongziqian was the head of the clan and the elder brother of Qin Xiaogong.
In addition, the reform stipulated that the children of the clan could not be nominated without military merit, which led to the hatred of vested interest groups.
After Qin Xiaogong's death, Gongziqian first jumped out to report on Shang Yang's rebellion. Shang Yang was about to flee to Wei, but he was not accepted because he defeated Wei Jun by treachery.He had no choice but to return to the fief, revolt, and died after being defeated by a chariot.
However, these are all superficial phenomena. If Shang Yang's death is simply attributed to the counterattack of the old aristocracy, it cannot be explained that the newly appointed King Qin Huiwen did not abolish the new law after the car broke Shang Yang.
This reform is in the interests of Qin on the whole. Where is the problem?
In "Historical Records: The Biographies of Shang Yang", Shang Yang led the army to regain Hexi, understatement, and it seems to be very smooth.However, according to the "Six Nations Chronology", this is a protracted tug of war with huge casualties.
In the eighth year of Qin Xiaogong, that is, the fifth year of Shang Yang's reform, Qin sent troops to capture Shaoliang, an important town in Hexi, and many cities in South Korea with Wei's ally.
In the ten years of Qin Xiaogong, Qin took advantage of Wei’s defeat of Guiling and the country’s emptiness. Shang Yang led the army commander to drove straight in and occupied the old capital of Wei State. Anyi; Wei Hui sent troops to build the Great Wall between Guyang and Lingshan to resist Qin Jun, but Guyang eventually fell.
In the eleventh year of Qin Xiaogong, the Wei state made peace with the eastern countries and concentrated its forces on the Qin state. The famous general Pang Juan regained Anyi and surrounded Guyang. Qin Xiaogong was forced to ally with Wei Hui in Tongdi.This shows that although the Qin State has become stronger, it was still unable to fight against the then superpower Wei State.
Until ten years later, in the XNUMXst year of Qin Xiaogong, Wei defeated Ma Ling and Pang Juan died in battle.
Shang Yang once again suggested sending troops to defeat Wei, and Wei sent his son-in-law to fight.Shang Yang took advantage of his old friendship with Gongziying, trapped Gongziying, and won the following three abuses.Even so, the State of Qin completely controlled the Hexi region eight years later.
Shang Yang's farming warfare measures required men to continue to produce and then engage in foreign wars.
But the scale of war must be adapted to the cycle of population reproduction, otherwise it will cause losses greater than output.
If Qin State did not liquidate Shang Yang at that time, there were two options that he could choose: 60. Asset contraction, reducing the speed of external expansion; XNUMX. Expanding liquidity and extending the upper limit of conscription to XNUMX.
Asset contraction is unprofitable, and it is easier for Qin to collapse;
You must know that women do not have an ovulation period every day. Even if they have children, they need the cooperation of men. People who are 60 years old still go to the army. For a long time, there will be no fertility men.
Even with children, it takes time to grow up.
From the beginning of the reform of Shang Yang to his death, only 20 years, it happened to be the time for a generation to grow up, and the population was almost depleted in the two wars.
Therefore, Chess Martingale is the best solution to repair the balance sheet through time.
Therefore, King Qin Hui and the nobles hit it off and wiped out Shang Yang's body. As for the people of Qin, they are just leeks. Isn't he fragrant taking advantage of this opportunity to grow a stubble?
This makes people think of another reformer who died unexpectedly-Kennedy.
When Kennedy came to power, there was an economic crisis within the United States and the Vietnam War outside. Unemployment rose and the dollar depreciated.
In response to the crisis, Kennedy began a series of policies, including increasing social welfare, advancing education reform, anti-economic recession, and advancing the moon landing plan.
These policies all require a lot of money. Kennedy no longer pursues budget balance, but uses deficit finance as a conventional means.
In 1961, the first annual budget during Kennedy's tenure resulted in the first fiscal deficit caused by non-war and non-economic recession in U.S. history;
From 1962 to 1969, the fiscal deficit increased year by year, and its share of GDP rose to about 10%.
This move was later criticized as part of the economic problems of the 20s because the government's huge expenditures contributed to inflation.
As the Federal Reserve is not under the control of the US government, Kennedy, who has faced resistance to fiscal reform, signed a presidential decree in June 1963 to prepare silver bonds based on silver reserves in an attempt to break the monopoly of financial capital.
The steps are too big and it is easy to pull the eggs.
Just a few months after the signing of this presidential decree, Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas. It had to give people rich associations. Some people said that he offended interest groups such as the CIA and arms dealers.
However, the successor Johnson basically inherited Kennedy's policy, but was more sleek in implementation. Deficit finance has become a "magic bullet" for the United States to continue to this day.
Reform can be done, Shang Yang must die.
Kennedy is the same, ancient and modern, both at home and abroad, such characters have achieved the same goal by different routes.
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