Australia-5 pandemics affecting the course of human history: the Ming Dynasty was ended by a pandemic | Australia Chinatown

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新冠肺炎疫情继续在全球蔓延,死亡人数上升,感染病例增多。2020年3月,世界卫生组织将新冠肺炎Cov。。。
            新冠肺炎疫情继续在全球蔓延,死亡人数上升,感染病例增多。<br />

In March 2020, the World Health Organization classified Covid-3 as a "global pandemic."At present, the new coronavirus is still spreading globally, with more than 19 million confirmed cases and more than XNUMX million deaths.

The epidemic situation in many countries is still severe, and some countries have relapsed after a period of time after the "Yaping Curve".

The virus has changed, and continues to change, the life trajectory of millions of people. The changes can range from short-term to long-term. The national, regional, and world-wide impacts are more far-reaching, and some are even irreversible. The trajectory of human history has changed.

There has been more than one precedent for this.

The Black Death in the XNUMXth Century and the Rise of Western Europe

The Black Death directly shook the foundation of the European tenant farming economy in the Middle Ages

Around 1350 AD, a plague believed to have originated in Mongolia swept across Europe, killing tens of millions of people, and reducing the population of Europe by a third.The plague was also called the Black Death.

Historians believe that, after the plague, many feudal countries in Europe have reborn from devastation and began to move towards modern society and commercial economy, paving the way for the rise of Western Europe and the dominance of the world in the future.

There is even a view that the plague gave birth to contemporary Western civilization.

Because a large number of young adults died of the plague, the rural labor force dropped sharply, and the feudal lord manor’s tenant farmers and serfs were in short supply, which shook the foundation of the feudal tenant farming system.

Image source, GETTY IMAGES is rampant, people burn patients’ clothes in order to control the spread

The demand for labor is in short supply and the labor is expensive, which directly promotes tool improvement and technological innovation.

Other historians believe that the rise of navigation, exploration, and imperialism in Western Europe is partly due to the plague.

On the three cornerstones of social and economic modernization, increased investment in technological inventions, and encouragement of overseas expansion, Western Europe has rapidly become the most prosperous and powerful region in the world.

America's smallpox and global cooling

图像来源,GETTY IMAGES 墨西哥阿兹特克,1520年,西班牙殖民者遭遇当地人勇猛抵抗。

The Americas became a European colony at the end of the 15th century. This period of history is extremely bloody. In addition to the deaths of guns and knives, a large number of Native Americans died from various fatal diseases brought by European colonists, mainly smallpox, measles, and flu. , Plague, malaria, diphtheria, typhus and cholera.

There are so many people dead that even the climate is affected.

英国大学学院一项研究发现,欧洲在美洲的殖民扩张的百年期间,美洲人口从6千万(当时世界人口的10%)减少到500万 –
600 million.

Image source, GETTY IMAGES
Spanish explorers arrived in the American continent, and the diseases they brought caused the deaths of tens of millions of native Americans.The picture shows Spanish explorers meeting with Peruvian indigenous chiefs

The sharp decline in population means that farming has decreased, and a large amount of farmland has returned to natural ecology such as wasteland or forest grassland.What is the concept of mass?Modern historians and scientists estimate that it is 56 square kilometers, equivalent to the area of ​​France or Kenya.

Such a dramatic increase in the area of ​​forests and pastures has led to a reduction in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and a drop in temperatures in many parts of the world.The carbon dioxide content of that historical period was extrapolated from Antarctica's ice core samples.

Scientists believe that this man-made change, coupled with large-scale volcanic eruptions and reduced solar activity, pushed the earth into a "little ice age."

Europe, like many parts of the world, has experienced the consequences of climate change, including severe crop reductions and famines.

Some people think this is retribution.

黄热病和海地法国殖民统

Image source, GETTY IMAGES yellow fever epidemic helped the Haitian rebel forces defeat the French army and put an end to French colonial rule.

The outbreak of yellow fever in Haiti indirectly drove French colonial power out of North America, and the United States of America quickly grew.

At the end of the 18th century, the French colonies continued to rebel against the French colonial rule by black slaves. In 1801, the two sides made peace, and the rebel leader Dusan Louvidour became the head of the Republic of Haiti.

But the political situation of the suzerain state was turned upside down, and Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor. He then decided to send troops to Haiti to suppress the rebellion and regain the colonial power.

Tens of thousands of French troops landed in Haiti, invincible on the battlefield.

图像来源,GETTY IMAGES 拿破仑军队镇压海地起义失败,也导致法国放弃了在北美的殖民野心

At this time, yellow fever began to spread among the French on the island.A total of 5 French officers and soldiers, colonial authorities, doctors and sailors died from this infectious disease.Only 3 survivors fled back to France.

Yellow fever originates from Africa, and Europeans have no natural immunity to it.

After Haiti was defeated by the plague, Napoleon not only gave up Haiti, but also gave up his colonial ambitions on the North American continent.

Two years after the disastrous defeat in the dispatch of troops to Haiti, the French government sold 210 million square kilometers of North American colonies to the young United States of America. The area of ​​the United States doubled, known as the "Louisiana Land Purchase Case."

African rinderpest and European colonial expansion

图像来源,GETTY IMAGES 非洲牛瘟直接导致大范围饥荒,使欧洲殖民扩张易如反掌。

A rinderpest epidemic broke out in Africa in the 19th century, which accelerated the process of European expansion of colonial rule in Africa.

The rinderpest virus killed 1888% of Africa’s cattle between 1897 and 90. The most severely affected areas include the Horn of Africa, West Africa and Southwest Africa.

Rinderpest directly caused famine, the collapse of social order, and the displacement of people.

Image source, GETTY IMAGES 14国在柏林开会协商如何瓜分非洲,之后不久非洲就开始流行牛瘟、饥荒。

Areas dominated by farming are not immune to rinderpest, because many places rely on cattle to plow the land.

At this time, European countries took advantage of the emptiness to establish colonial rule in large areas of Africa.

The plan to colonize Africa was drawn up a few years ago. In 1884-85, 14 European countries met in Berlin to discuss how to divide up African colonies. At the end of the meeting, a formal resolution was formed, delimiting their respective spheres of influence.

This has changed the course of history in Africa.

图像来源,GETTY IMAGES 满清覆灭大明王朝,是一段血腥的历史

In the 1870s, 10% of Africa belonged to European colonies. In 1900, only 10% were not European colonies.

During this process,,以及它造成的经济危机,成了欧洲殖民宗主国的帮手。

For example, when Italy entered Eritrea in early 1890, there was a famine, and one of the three people had starved to death.

The plague and the end of the Ming Dynasty in China

China's Ming Dynasty was prosperous for three centuries, and it could be called a strong national power, and its political and cultural influence radiated large areas of East Asia.

However, a great plague declared the end of the Ming Dynasty.

图像来源,GETTY IMAGES 长城的很大一部分建于明朝,或在明朝得到加固、翻新。

In 1641, a plague appeared in northern China, and the population in some areas decreased by 20% to 40%.Nearly 60% of people in Kyoto died from the plague in the late Ming Dynasty.

Misfortunes never come singly. When the plague hit, it was a drought and locust plague in North China, and there was no harvest of farmland particles.The corpses were everywhere.

The plagues of the late Ming Dynasty probably included plague and malaria, and the virus may have been brought into the pass by the Qing army in the north.

This may explain why the Qing army entered the Pass safe and sound.

However, in the last years of the Ming Dynasty, the prosperous age was no longer, the imperial court was severely corrupt, and the mansions were about to fall. The Qing army looked forward to it. The famine and plague only helped the Qing Dynasty.

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