Australia-"Take life for money"?How did Chinese white-collar workers degenerate into the bottom of society (Photos) | Australia Chinatown

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The excessive squeezing of employees by Internet companies has become a new problem.Restrictions on going to the toilet, unlimited overtime, even sudden death, self

This article is reproduced from Nanfengchuang, and only represents the original source and the original author's views, for reference only, and does not represent the attitude and position of this website.

互联网大厂对员工的无度压榨,成了一个新的问题。限制上厕所、无限加班,乃至猝死、自杀,令人对当下“科技企业”的内部生态产生了.

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In early January, CCTV issued a comment stating that struggle cannot evolve into "exchanging life for money."

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CCTV commented that struggle should not evolve into "exchange life for money"

“拿命换钱”是对员工的劳动力过度榨取的结果,于是人们提出了一个疑问:这些都是高科技企业,或者叫密集型企业,为何在表现上,却是活脱脱一个劳动密集型企业?

劳动使用的规模很大,单个员工的劳动强度也很大,互联网大厂在观感里,甚至有了一种富士康的既视感。

不但未能解放人,似乎还制造了新的、更深的劳动泥淖,为什么会这样?

This good question needs a good answer. Today we will try to face this problem.

01 bottom layer reproduction

A courier I am very familiar with, surnamed Cheng, often haunts our community.A couplet written by himself is pasted on the rear of his van-type three-wheeled courier: Young and strong don’t work hard, grow up to send express.

Obviously, he is still a "modern traditional concept": he is engaged in manual labor because he has no academic qualifications.This is also the concept that we most easily accept and agree with.

However, in 2020, a set of statistics shows that more than 28 people with a bachelor degree or above are delivering food.

Delivering food and express delivery are actually the same job.Undergraduate courier, I haven't found a recent national figure, but news of undergraduates becoming couriers is not new.A set of partial data shows that from 2015 to 2017, the number of undergraduate couriers in Jiangsu Province increased from more than 5000 to more than 7000.A few years ago, there were still such a number in a province. Today, the scale of undergraduate couriers in the country can match that.

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From Meituan's ``2018 Takeaway Rider Employment Report''

In contrast, the more decent online ride-hailing drivers, especially those who purchase their own vehicles, generally have a higher proportion of highly educated drivers.

What is this indicating?

People's first reaction should be: high income.Indeed, in an era when applied technology has just expanded into these areas and caused a capital melee, platforms tend to provide relatively generous subsidies, and there are many takeaways, couriers, and online ride-hailing drivers with a monthly income of more than XNUMX.Hard work, but worth it.

The logic cannot end here.

It’s better to be a restaurant owner than to be a delivery clerk. To work in a small and medium-sized enterprise is worse than to open an online car.Behind these facts is the concentration of market opportunities, increasingly concentrated in the hands of large companies that hold applied technology and large amounts of capital.

The capital scale of platform companies is expanding rapidly, and the rich financing methods have made the explosive growth of capital scale commonplace.This will squeeze out the living space of small and medium-sized market players in similar industries, and the concentration of market opportunities in large companies will mean shrinking opportunities for these industries.

The opposite of the increase in capital is the shrinking of the bottom labor population.It is generally believed that the "Lewis Turning Point" appeared in China 10 years ago, and there was a shortage of labor supply.The labor here mainly refers to the bottom labor.

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Lewis Turning Point

The large-scale industrial application of the Internet is later than the "Lewis Turning Point".The huge investment scale must be matched by the corresponding labor force. What should we do?

市场,会不断重新制造底层。所以我们就看到,越来越多的有产者沦为无产者,越来越多的老板沦为打工者,越来越多的脑力劳动者沦为体力劳动者,越来越多的高学历年轻人从事要学历的工作。

In a nutshell: More and more middle class, or people who have the hope of becoming middle class, are reduced to the bottom.

This is the "reproduction of the bottom layer".

02 satisfied bottom

The so-called "reproduction at the bottom" is not about returning to the industrial jungle of the 1990s and the beginning of the new century. It is not about suppressing dignity in exchange for low cost and high efficiency.Because the bottom of today is different from the bottom of the past.

In the past, the bottom layer had no food and clothing, and the whole family had only one pair of pants.Today's bottom level is that the income is good, the insurance is complete, and the overtime pay is a lot.

What they have in common is that they work endlessly, and there is not much left in the end, which is not enough to achieve class climbing.Today's bottom layer is what the scholar Aiden mentioned in "Capital" said: "An easy and generous state of subordination."

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第一财经商业数据中心×苏宁易购发布的《2018快递员洞察报告》显示快递员的勤劳新指数

Life may collapse at any time, and only a few really collapse, but the sense of crisis of collapse always beats them and dare not relax for a moment.This will force them to strive to sell their labor, and if they have already been sold, they will strive to continue selling.

活下来不成问题,但机制不会让他们有所积累。因为一旦积累,他们就会摆脱“隶属状态”,从而导致资本积累和扩大再生产缺失与之相匹配的劳动力比例,进而导致效率降低,生产不饱和,甚至导致资本运转停滞,生命结束。

一个现代,可以没有绝对贫困,但不可以没有底层。“安易而宽大的隶属状态”,说的就是未必贫困的底层。

The bottom layer must exist, and it must follow the capital trend and expand on demand.John Belas said: "Work can make people rich, so the more laborers, the more rich people....The work of the poor is the source of wealth for the rich." 

The bottom layer must be able to be manufactured at any time.Mendeville said: "The poor are gone, who is called to work? ... For the poor, he should be saved from hunger, but he should not be allowed to get anything worth hoarding... The largest part of the poor is never lazy. But it is often necessary to spend all of his income.... Except for lack, there is no reason for a person who makes a living by labor every day to stimulate his hard work."

今天的底层,许多人收入是不错的,大部分并未陷于绝对贫困。当然他们也不可能占便宜,因为按照一般规律,随着经济发展,“资本的价值构成”当中,“不变资本部分与可变资本部分相比而累进增大”,也就是说,工资占比在资本总额当中的比例会不断下降。

However, the absolute amount of wages (variable capital) may continue to increase because the total investment is expanding in multiples-today's large companies have tens to hundreds of billions in revenue after only two to three years.Therefore, the income of laborers is indeed continuously increasing, and many people are quite satisfied.

As far as the commercial operating mechanism is concerned, how to offset this satisfaction and prevent them from no longer working hard?How to consume their savings and keep them at the bottom?

观察今日之,奥秘在于两点。

One is that ubiquitous consumer loans, by continuing to give cultural and spiritual meaning to consumer behavior, and at the same time provide channels for loan purchases, have caused many people to fall into the abyss of debt.

The second is the explosion of thunder with the sound of firecrackers.Every explosion of thunder is the disappearance of the savings of tens of thousands of people.

我们不能说这两点奥秘是一种精巧的合谋,但从整个经济的局面观之,它们客观上起着一种持续制造底层的作用。

current有一种麻痹效应,就是让你身处底层、沦为底层,却感觉不到。

03 "Collective Dimensionality Reduction"

我们正在讨论的是一个思接千载的问题,应该从史的角度来仔细考察,但篇幅所限,只能简略述之。

Traditional agriculture不是一个理想。但日出而作日落而息,如果没有政治动荡、战争爆发、自然灾害、瘟疫流行,一般来说,结构整体上不会发生明显的调整。

而在工业,变革频仍,调整也就变得频仍。

Every change will rearrange people's positions. One of the important characteristics is that many, many people will be re-bottomized-in theological language, "human beings are destined to sweat and eat bread on their foreheads."

In the prehistory of capitalism, the most important thing is the history of primitive accumulation.

英国的“圈地运动”最为典型,为了迎合一种正在成形的生产关系,原始积累做了两件事,一是把土地、生产工具等资源集中起来,二是把自耕农、寺庙的僧侣及其土地租种者、封建贵族的家臣及农奴、基尔特组织中的学徒“解放”出来,变成可以出卖劳动力的“劳动者”。然后两相配合,甲方支配乙方,使用甲方拥有的生产工具,去为甲方从事单纯为了获取利润的工作。

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Smallholder farmers are converted into wage workers in the British enclosure movement

其中的关键词是“. "之后,一无所有,无可选择,就“出卖劳动力”了。

This is the "primitive accumulation" often mentioned in political economy.The original meaning is that the relationship between capital and workers has not yet occurred. This is a process of preparing preconditions for its occurrence. "It is not the result of the capitalist method of production, but rather its starting point." "So the so-called primitive accumulation is nothing more than the historical process of separation between the producer and the means of production."

When the relationship between capital and workers is determined, capital accumulation becomes very easy. It can use many effective levers such as wages and prices to adjust the relationship between investment and the number of workers that match it.

The Egyptian economist Amin Samir has long put forward the concept of "new primitive accumulation". He argued that primitive accumulation not only belongs to the history of capitalism, but has existed for a long time, and it continues to exist in the contemporary era.

现在有一种隐隐的感觉,那就是,正处于某种新的生产关系的前夜,可能预示着一种“原始再积累”。

所谓新的生产关系,不是革命性的而是改良性的变动。改良的动力,来自变革,即生产力变革。,就是无远弗届的互联网应用

Infinite distance is the characteristic of the Internet. In the production application scenario, it refers to the ability to expand beyond geographical restrictions, and the marginal cost of such expansion approaches zero indefinitely as the scale of the enterprise increases.

This means that if national boundaries and policy barriers are not taken into consideration, then in theory the scale of enterprises can be infinite.So we see that today's companies, especially platform companies, can become a behemoth overnight.What they will become in the future, I don't know.

变成巨兽的条件,首先就是有足够的投资。在今天的条件下,要圈地,基金、股市、互联网金融,都是融资的渠道,到处都是钱,所以这不是问题。问题就在于,与暴增的规模相适应的劳动者,从何而来?

人口红利期已经过去了,老龄化时代已经日渐走近,像20世纪八九十年代那样为了寻求更好的生活而主动拥入工业体系的年轻人,已经越来越少。

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Population age structure and dependency ratio as calculated by the National Bureau of Statistics

There are two ways to obtain a labor force that is compatible with the scale of the giant beast.

The first is what I said earlier, the reproduction of the bottom layer makes some people who have accumulated wealth lose their accumulation, just like the craftsmen of Kilt become industrial workers.

第二种则是,直接进行“集体降维”,把员、小知识分子、业务员这些原本在经济地位上属于白领、高于产业工人的身份,在身份不变的基础上,地位变得和以前的产业工人无异,成为最底层。

同时,给这些人提供看上去体面的薪水和保障,让他们日常里根本意识不到自己是底层。反正,因为与制度带来的效率提升,在资本的价值构成当中,可变资本(今天叫人力成本)的占比,整体上总是不断下降的。

如果这些人在数量上仍然不足以匹配资本规模以及其再积累的加,怎么办呢?不管效率如何提升,钱总是要对应一定数量的人,今天钱太多了,人就相对不足。好办,那就把一个人当成两个甚至三个来用。

这就是我们看到的各种加班、各种限制时间(包括上厕所)的,而且大企业家们还要持续地为加班制造话语上的合法性。

It turned out that Foxconn’s living environment for workers has shifted to white-collar workers in Internet companies.

04Prevent chronic sinking

"Collective dimensionality reduction" is in a completely economic sense.Today's white-collar workers have almost no difference in economic income compared with industrial workers, construction workers, decoration workers, and living service workers, and even white-collar workers are still lower than those called "workers".

"Collective dimensionality reduction" is both logical and a fait accompli.

通过消费贷负债,或者因为爆雷而失去积蓄的人们,以及那些被巨兽们挤垮的中小企业主、个体老板,最后都成为了全新的“劳动者”。而且人们发现,自己能走的路不多,归根到底,都逃不脱某个平台的笼罩。

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Thousands of landlords and tenants involved in the 2020 Zhejiang Hangzhou long-term rental apartment thunder

The reason for the narrowness of the road lies in the far-reaching nature of the Internet mentioned above.The giant beast is growing up, and it may not be accurate to grow up. It is apt to say "expansion".From Heilongjiang to Hainan, people used the same software to order takeaways, and used the same software to call online ride-hailing. This was unimaginable in the pre-Internet era.

我们必须拥抱,否则我们就将被落后造成的困局所拥抱。然而发展的目的,不是让人,以及生活,被某种精打细算的力量所熊抱。

今天的问题就是,一些精打细算的力量,已经转换为一种准公共品,劫持了我们的生活,也劫持了我们的未来。公共品与私有之间,形成了一种莫大的张力。

This is called a monopoly of opportunity.

今天,我们可能是一个创业者,这个上有无数的创业者,但追根溯源都会发现,自己的创业是依托于某个平台,如果这个平台对自己关上大门,那么一切的努力都将灰飞烟灭。

Because these platforms are large enough.If they can do everything, even selling vegetables, then each of us will be labelled to which platform in the future.This is also a self-evident original intention of platform anti-monopoly.

以前曾经作过一个推演,基础是决定论—将会改变生产关系。如果人工智能普及,那么制造业将不再需要劳动力,从而不再雇佣,那么劳动者就会失业,购买力就会丧失;并且,因为人工智能的高门槛,也会造成机会垄断,难以进入,人们只能去从事服务业,于是服务业就会沦为制造业的代理消费行业;但这种代理消费,始终不足以消耗人工智能制造业日夜不休的生产能力,所以绝大部分人就会陷于无望,而且因为没有购买力,剩余价值也就无从产生;无望会诱发革命,没有利润生产也就不能维继,如果不希望发生革命,也要维继生产,那么唯一的就是,生产和分配上的公有制。

形势之变幻,让这种推理出现了硬伤,硬伤在于,现实告诉我们,事情的核心根本不是制造业,恰恰是服务业,服务业才是新应用的最重要场景。

推理的前提依然有效,那就是制造业将不再需要工人,至少要那么多工人,人们必然拥向服务业。这就部分消解了劳动力不足导致的生产扩张难题,同时也让人们在阶层上慢性沉沦。

当我们的就业日益依赖服务业,并且服务业的创新机会因为应用的高门槛而不断被集中起来的时候,就会出现什么场景呢?

那就是对文首提问的回答:明明是密集型企业,看上去却是劳动密集的。

What we look forward to is, what exactly is this re-accumulation nurturing?

In fact, I have held a view for a long time. For a latecomer, unable and unintentional to carry out overseas colonization and slave trade, China must realize industrialization and then move towards modernization, and even catch up with the early and mature West. We must redouble our efforts and strive for the whole people.If you don't struggle supernormally, you will fall behind, and you will be beaten if you fall behind, and being beaten is a bloody lesson in history.

However, things cannot go in an extreme direction, and struggle cannot evolve into "exchanging life for money."

This article is reproduced from Nanfengchuang, and only represents the original source and the original author's views, for reference only, and does not represent the attitude and position of this website.

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