Australia – Biden’s newly recruited Chinese-American consultant into the White House is the most troublesome role for the tech giants (photo) | Australia Chinatown

Release your eyes, put on headphones, and listen~!
The big sufferers of the American Internet giants are here.Although Wu Xiuming, a professor at Columbia University, during last year’s U.S. election, Silicon Valley

The big sufferers of the American Internet giants are here.

Professor Wu Xiuming of Columbia University
Professor Wu Xiuming of Columbia University

虽然在去年的美国大选期间,硅谷科技巨头们一边倒地支持民主党候选人拜登,反对高举贸易保护主义和排外民粹主义的特朗普;但科技巨头们也很清楚一点,无论谁当选总统,的日子都不会好过。因为无论两党谁赢,都不会改变美国反监管政策收紧的大趋势,都会继续推进对几大巨头的反诉讼与调查。

美国白宫昨天宣布,哥伦比亚大学法学院教授吴修铭(Tim Wu)将加入美国国家经济委员会(National Economic Council),担任拜登总统的科技与市场竞争政策特别助理。他是美国反最强硬的鹰派学者,明确主张应当分拆互联网巨头;也是科技巨头们最不愿见到进入白宫的人物。

在拜登当选之后,外界就猜测吴修铭可能进入美国反主管机构联邦贸易委员会(FTC),他也曾经担任FTC顾问。但最终拜登还是决定将吴修铭招入白宫,担任自己的反政策特别助理。或许这个职位让吴修铭可以更为直接地影响到美国反政策制定。

考虑到吴修铭在反以及其他问题上的激进,他被视为是民主党激进派人物。拜登将他召入国家经济委员会,或许也是因为这个职位并不需要参议院表决确认,不需要担心遭到共和党议员们的反对。

国家经济委员会是美国负责为总统提供经济政策的专家顾问小组;在白宫内工作,隶属于总统。委员会成员来自各个领域的专家和学者,Of主张会直接影响到美国总统的经济政策。

The director of the Trump Administration's National Economic Council is Larry Kudlow, the China hawk, and many trade and economic sanctions policies are directly related to him.The new director of the National Economic Council of the Biden administration is Brian Deese, the deputy director of the National Economic Council under Obama.Diss used to serve as Obama’s special assistant to economic policy (similar to Wu Xiuming’s current position) and was one of the policymakers who helped Obama rescue the US auto industry in 2009.

吴修铭也是自华裔女律师戴琦(Kathrine Tai)出任美国贸易代表之后,拜登政府白宫的第二位华裔官员。两人都能说流利的中文,也都是对华鹰派。在哈佛大学法学院拿到博士学位之后,吴修铭担任过美国最高法院大法官布雷耶(Stephen Breyer)的助手,做过一段时间律师之后,他选择进入高校从事学术研究。

2006年至今,吴修铭一直在哥伦比亚大学法学院担任教授,也在斯坦福等其他大学担任客座教授;他的研究专注于反、知识产权和电信法领域。在奥巴马政府时期,吴修铭曾经出任过联邦贸易委员会的反problem顾问,后来担任过纽约检察官Of法律顾问。

In 2014, Wu Xiuming also served as a candidate for lieutenant governor and formed a partner with Zephyr Teachout, a female professor at Fordham University in New York, to participate in the Democratic primary election for the governor of New York State. Although he was publicly endorsed by the New York Times , But still lost to the current New York State Governor Andrew Cuomo (Andrew Cuomo). In 2018, Wu Xiuming once considered running for the New York State Attorney General, but finally gave up his plan to run for the election.

吴修铭多年来一直着书撰文,公开呼吁加强对科技巨头的反监管。他在《纽约时报》等主流媒体撰写专栏文章,发表了《网络中立性》、《宽带歧视》等学术文章,还出版了《总开关:信息帝国们的衰亡史》(The Master Switch, The Rise and Fall of Infomation Empires)、《庞然大物的诅咒:新镀金时代的反》(The Curse of Bigness, Antitrust in the New Gilded Age)等着作。

The term "network neutrality" comes from Wu Xiuming's 2003 paper "Network Neutrality: Broadband Discrimination" (Network Neutrality, Broadband Discrimination). He believed that Internet service providers (ISPs) should be regarded as public facilities. Different types of network services and content should not be treated differently.Wu Xiuming forward-looking proposed that the government should pass legislation to solve this problem.

在奥巴马政府时期,联邦通信委员会(FCC)将网络中立性确定为基本,但在特朗普政府时期遭到废弃。不过随着拜登政府的上台,网络中立性将再次成为美国互联网的基石。可以说,吴修铭是美国网络中立性的主要推动者之一。

不过,吴修铭最为人熟知的则是他在互联网监管方面的强硬态度。他很早就意识到互联网巨头不断膨胀的经济实力与信息影响力可能会给社会带来危害,将美国互联网行业目前的格局与19世纪晚期横行的“镀金时代”相提并论。

在2018年的《新镀金时代的反》一书中,吴修铭这样写道,“经济极端集中会导致严重不公平和实质性危害,滋长(社会)对国家主义和极端主义领导的渴望。科技巨头的巨大影响力体现在我们每日生活中,尤其是谷歌、Facebook和亚马逊。”

吴修铭在2019年公开表示,自己后悔在奥巴马政府时期没有努力推动加强对科技巨头的反监管与并购审查,“或许那个时候大家对科技行业有着过度乐观的看法”。几大科技巨头的急剧膨胀正是在奥巴马政府任期内实现的。

In the past few years, Wu Xiuming and the radical forces in the Democratic Party have reached a lot of consensus: technology giants are disappointing in protecting user privacy and data, curbing false information on platforms, and treating small competitors fairly. They are also disappointed in terms of expression of speech and information acquisition. Areas such as shopping and consumption control the people.He has repeatedly publicly called on the US government to adopt legislative and regulatory measures, and last year publicly called for the forced spin-off of Facebook.

马萨诸塞州民主党参议员沃伦(Elizabeth Warren)对吴修铭大加赞赏。“吴修铭一直是反,他一直在推动民选官员分拆和限制科技巨头。看到他(进入国家经济委员会)。”

美国白宫新闻发言人普萨基(Jen Psaki)在宣布吴修铭任命时表示,拜登的一直很明确,他反对滥用市场力量,其中包括了科技巨头和高管的滥用行为。普萨基表示,吴修铭将推进拜登总统的议程,包括解决科技平台影响力不断增加带来的经济和社会挑战,推动市场竞争,应对和市场权势问题,扩大低收入和农村社区的宽带服务。

美国参议院司法委员会反委员会主席、明尼苏达民主党参议员科隆布查(Amy Klobuchar)也对吴修铭进入白宫表达了认可。她在中表示,“美国存在着需要迫切解决的重大问题。吴修铭担任总统的科技与市场竞争政策特别助理,表明了本届政府将认真对待美国的市场竞争问题。

在特朗普政府时期,美国司法部和联邦贸易委员四大互联网巨头(谷歌、亚马逊、苹果和Facebook)进行了一年半的反调查,并在去年先后对谷歌和Facebook提起反诉讼。拜登政府不仅会继续推进已经提出的两起诉讼,还将继续推进对亚马逊和苹果的反调查乃至提起诉讼。

而民主党主导的众议院反委员会也在去年完成了对四大巨头的调查报告,明确指出科技巨头滥用优势地位阻碍市场竞争打压竞争对手,要求重新修订美国反法律对此进行结构性调整。在本届国会,国会两院已经安排了系列听证会,计划讨论修改美国的反立法,遏制科技巨头继续扩张,刺激美国科技领域的市场竞争。

吴修铭进入白宫,可以被视为拜登政府向科技巨头发出的一个明确信号:这届政府的反,会比特朗普政府更为强硬。而且,遏制互联网巨头不断增长的经济与社会影响力,已经成为美国两党为数不多的共识之一。

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